CAS NUMBER: 7664-41-7
MOLECULAR FORMULA: H3N
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 17.0305
Ammonia (chemical formula: NH3) is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen.
As a colorless pungent gas, it is highly soluble in water to become the liquid ammonia.
Ammonia is also one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compound in the atmosphere.
Ammonia provides the fundamental nutrients demands for various kinds of organisms by serving as a precursor of their food and fertilizer.
Ammonia is also important for various kinds of biological processes.
In addition, Ammonia serves as a building blocks of many kinds of commercially important nitrogen compounds as well as pharmaceutical products.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct pungent smell.
Ammonia is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to 45 percent of world's food and fertilizers.
Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products.
Ammonia is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water.
Although common in nature both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the solar system and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form.
Ammonia is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States, and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.
The global industrial production of ammonia in 2018 was 175 million tonnes, with no significant change relative to the 2013 global industrial production of 175 million tonnes.
Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders.
Ammonia boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored under pressure or at low temperature.
Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water.
The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale (density), with 26 degrees Baumé (about 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C or 59.9 °F) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.
Ammonia solutions (containing more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia) appears as a clear colorless liquid consisting of ammonia dissolved in water. Corrosive to tissue and metals.
Although ammonia is lighter than air, the vapors from a leak will initially hug the ground.
Long term exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations may result in adverse health conditions from inhalation.
Prolonged exposure of containers to fire or heat may result in their violent rupturing and rocketing.
Ammonia, anhydrous appears as a clear colorless gas with a strong odor.
Shipped as a liquid under its own vapor pressure.
Density (liquid) 6 lb / gal.
Contact with the unconfined liquid can cause frostbite.
Gas generally regarded as nonflammable but does burn within certain vapor concentration limits and with strong ignition.
Fire hazard increases in the presence of oil or other combustible materials.
Although gas is lighter than air, vapors from a leak initially hug the ground.
Prolonged exposure of containers to fire or heat may cause violent rupturing and rocketing.
Long-term inhalation of low concentrations of the vapors or short-term inhalation of high concentrations has adverse health effects.
Used as a fertilizer, as a refrigerant, and in the manufacture of other chemicals.
Rate of onset: Immediate Persistence: Minutes Odor threshold: 17 ppm Source/use/other hazard: Explosives manufacture; pesticides; detergents industry.
Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia appears as a colorless aqueous liquid solution with a strong odor of ammonia.
Both liquid and vapors extremely irritating, especially to the eyes.
Ammonia, a colorless gas with a distinct odor, is a building-block chemical and a key component in the manufacture of many products people use every day.
It occurs naturally throughout the environment in the air, soil and water and in plants and animals, including humans.
The human body makes ammonia when the body breaks down foods containing protein into amino acids and ammonia, then converting the ammonia into urea.
Ammonia is a basic building block for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, which releases nitrogen, an essential nutrient for growing plants, including farm crops and lawns.
About 90 percent of ammonia produced worldwide is used in fertilizer, to help sustain food production for billions of people around the world. The production of food crops naturally depletes soil nutrient supplies. In order to maintain healthy crops, farmers rely on fertilizer to keep their soils productive. Fertilizers also can also help increase levels of essential nutrients like zinc, selenium and boron in food crops.
Ammonia, also known as NH3, is a colorless gas with a distinct odor composed of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms.
Ammonia is produced naturally in the human body and in nature—in water, soil and air, even in tiny bacteria molecules.
In human health, ammonia and the ammonium ion are vital components of metabolic processes.
About 90 percent of ammonia produced is used in fertilizer, to help sustain food production for billions of people around the world.
Ammonia has other important uses; for example in household cleaning products and in manufacturing other products.
Ammonia is a toxic gas or liquid that, when concentrated, is corrosive to tissues upon contact.
Exposure to ammonia in sufficient quantities can be fatal. One of the highest production-volume chemicals in the U.S., concentrated ammonia is used in manufacturing, refrigeration, and agriculture (as a fertilizer).
Household ammonia is much less concentrated; it rarely causes burns, but it does cause irritation.
The lowest level at which humans can detect the odor of ammonia (odor threshold) generally provides sufficient warning of exposure; however, persons with prolonged exposure to ammonia will lose their ability to detect the odor (olfactory fatigue).
Ammonia commonly exists as part of a solution.
Ammonia (NH3) is a common toxicant derived from wastes (see Figure 1), fertilizers and natural processes.
Ammonia nitrogen includes both the ionized form (ammonium, NH4+) and the unionized form (ammonia, NH3).
An increase in pH favors formation of the more toxic unionized form (NH3), while a decrease favors the ionized (NH4+) form.
Temperature also affects the toxicity of ammonia to aquatic life.
Ammonia is a common cause of fish kills.
However, the most common problems associated with ammonia relate to elevated concentrations affecting fish growth, gill condition, organ weights and hematocrit.
Exposure duration and frequency strongly influence the severity of effects.
Ammonia in sediments typically results from bacterial decomposition of organic matter that accumulates in sediment.
Sediment microbiota mineralize organic nitrogen or (less commonly) produce ammonia by dissimilatory nitrate reduction.
Ammonia is especially prevalent in anoxic sediments because nitrification is inhibited.
Ammonia generated in sediment may be toxic to benthic or surface water biota.
Ammonia also exerts a biochemical oxygen demand on receiving waters (referred to as nitrogenous biological oxygen demand or NBOD).
This occurs because dissolved oxygen is consumed as bacteria and other microbes oxidize ammonia into nitrite and nitrate.
The resulting dissolved oxygen reductions can decrease species diversity and even cause fish kills.
Additionally, ammonia can lead to heavy plant growth (eutrophication) due to its nutrient properties.
Algae and macrophytes take up ammonia, thereby reducing aqueous concentrations.
Ammonia is a colorless, poisonous gas with a familiar noxious odor.
Ammonia occurs in nature, primarily produced by anaerobic decay of plant and animal matter; and it also has been detected in outer space.
Some plants, mainly legumes, in combination with rhizobia bacteria, “fix” atmospheric nitrogen to produce ammonia.
Ammonia has been known by its odor since ancient times.
Ammonia was isolated in the 18th century by notable chemists Joseph Black (Scotland), Peter Woulfe (Ireland), Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and Joseph Priestley (England). In 1785, French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet determined its elemental composition.
Ammonia is produced commercially via the catalytic reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen at high temperature and pressure.
The process was developed in 1909 by German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch.
Both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work, but in widely separated years: Haber in 1918 and Bosch in 1931.
The fundamental Haber–Bosch process is still in use today.
In 2020, the worldwide ammonia production capacity was 224 million tonnes (Mt).
Actual production was 187 Mt.
Ammonia ranks ninth among chemicals produced globally.
Most ammonia production—≈85%—is used directly or indirectly in agriculture.
Chemical fertilizers made from ammonia include urea, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, and other nitrates.
Other important chemicals produced from ammonia include nitric acid, hydrazine, cyanides, and amino acids.
Ammonia was once used widely as a refrigerant.
Ammonia has largely been displaced by chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are also under environmental scrutiny.
Probably the most familiar household use of ammonia is in glass cleaners.
Ammonia is highly soluble in water; its exact solubility depends on temperature (see fast facts).
Aqueous ammonia is also called ammonium hydroxide, but that molecule cannot be isolated.
When ammonia is used as a ligand in coordination complexes, it is called “ammine”.
Currently ammonia is made from fossil fuel–derived hydrogen and is therefore not a “green” product, despite its widespread use in agriculture.
But environmentally green ammonia may be on the horizon if the hydrogen is made by other means, such as wind- or solar-powered electrolysis of water.
Ammonia can be burned as a fuel in standard engines.
A study by the catalyst company Haldor Topsoe (Kongens Lyngby, Denmark) concluded that replacing conventional ship fuels with green ammonia would be cost-efficient and would eliminate a significant source of greenhouse gases.
Ammonia potentially can be used in aircraft fuels as well. During a transition period, ammonia could be mixed with conventional fuels.
Ammonia (NH3) is a highly reactive and soluble alkaline gas.
Ammonia originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources, with the main source being agriculture, e.g. manures, slurries and fertiliser application.
Excess nitrogen can cause eutrophication and acidification effects on semi-natural ecosystems, which in turn can lead to species composition changes and other deleterious effects.
Ammonia comes from the breakdown and volatilisation of urea. Emissions and deposition vary spatially, with "emission hot-spots" associated with high-density intensive farming practices.
Other agriculture-related emissions of ammonia include biomass burning or fertiliser manufacture.
Ammonia is also emitted from a range of non-agricultural sources, such as catalytic converters in petrol cars, landfill sites, sewage works, composting of organic materials, combustion, industry and wild mammals and birds.
Ammonia is a colorless, pungent gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonia is a biologically active compound found in most waters as a normal biological degradation product of nitrogenous organic matter (protein).
Ammonia also may find its way to ground and surface waters through discharge of industrial process wastes containing ammonia and fertilizers.
Ammonia has been used in municipal treatment systems for more than 70 years to prolong the effectiveness of disinfection chlorine added to drinking water.
The addition of ammonia enhances the formation of chloramines (which may create objectionable tastes), and it reduces the formation of chlorination by-products which may be carcinogenic. Partial adsorption of chloramines by GAC may liberate ammonia.
Ammonia is a nutrient that contains nitrogen and hydrogen.
Ammonias chemical formula is NH3 in the un-ionized state and NH4 in the ionized form.
Total ammonia is the sum of both NH3 and NH4.
Total ammonia is what is measured analytically in water.
Ammonia is a waste product formed primarily by bacteria in the intestines during the digestion of protein.
If not processed and cleared from the body appropriately, excess ammonia can accumulate in the blood.
This test measures the amount of ammonia in the blood.
Ammonia is normally transported in the blood to the liver, where it is converted into two substances called urea and glutamine.
The urea is then carried to the kidneys, where it is eliminated in the urine.
If this “urea cycle” does not complete the breakdown of ammonia, ammonia builds up in the blood and can pass from the blood into the brain.
Ammonia is a colourless, reactive gas that is lighter than air (approximately half as heavy) which dissolves readily in water.
Ammonia has a strong smell, similar to urine, which can be detected by most people even in small amounts.
Ammonia gas is non-flammable, but because at certain concentrations when mixed with air it could explode if ignited, it is treated as flammable.
Solutions of ammonia are alkali and can be corrosive when concentrated.
Ammonia solution may also be called ammonium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia.
Ammonia is severely toxic. It is a colourless gas with a distinct, pungent odour.
Ammonia is widely used as a refrigerant in a wide variety of places, including recreation facilities such as arenas, skating and curling rinks; food processing facilities; and cold storage warehouses.
Ammonia is also a common ingredient in many cleaners.
While most people can detect the smell of ammonia in the range of two to 55 parts per million (ppm), it has been recorded that workers who have been exposed repeatedly lose the ability to smell ammonia at low levels.
Relying on the sense of smell is not an effective way to protect workers.
Ammonia is considered a severe health hazard due to its toxicity.
Exposure to 300 ppm is immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) and can be fatal within a few breaths.
Ammonia is corrosive to the skin, eyes and lungs.
While direct contact with concentrated amounts of the chemical can cause burns to the skin and eyes, the more common cause of serious risk for workers is the negative health effects of breathing in ammonia when it is released into the atmosphere.
While elevated levels can kill, lower levels of ammonia (levels from 70 to 300 ppm) can cause severe irritation of the nose, throat and airways.
Damage from inhalation can cause life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema).
Symptoms of low and moderate levels of exposure include coughing, shortness of breath, difficult breathing and tightness in the chest.
Symptoms may develop hours after exposure and can be made worse by physical effort.
Long- term damage may result from a single severe short-term exposure.
Additionally, low level long-term exposure can irritate and inflame the airways, which can lead to permanent damage.
Ammonia is flammable at concentrations of approximately 15 to 28 per cent by volume in air.
Ammonia can explode if released in an enclosed space with a source of ignition present, or if a vessel containing ammonia is exposed to sufficient heat.
The only safe level of exposure to toxic chemicals is zero.
However, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists puts the threshold limit value for ammonia at 25 ppm for an eight-hour period.
The threshold limit value is also known as the time-weighted average (the highest recommended amount of exposure to a chemical).
Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas that is one of the most important industrial inorganic chemicals.
Ammonia is widely used in fertilizers, refrigerants, explosives, cleaning agents, and as a feedstock to produce numerous other chemicals.
Ammonia ranks as one of the top 10 chemicals produced annually.
Household ammonia is a solution of NH3 in water, and is used as a general purpose cleaner for many surfaces.
Because ammonia results in a relatively streak-free shine, one of its most common uses is to clean glass, porcelain and stainless steel.
Ammonia is also frequently used for cleaning ovens and soaking items to loosen baked-on grime.
Household ammonia ranges in concentration by weight from 5 to 10% ammonia.
United States manufacturers of cleaning products are required to provide the product's material safety data sheet which lists the concentration used.
Solutions of ammonia (5–10% by weight) are used as household cleaners, particularly for glass.
These solutions are irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes (respiratory and digestive tracts), and to a lesser extent the skin.
Caution should be used that the chemical is never mixed into any liquid containing bleach, as a toxic gas may result.
Mixing with chlorine-containing products or strong oxidants, such as household bleach, can generate chloramines.
Ammonia, as the vapor released by smelling salts, has found significant use as a respiratory stimulant.
Ammonia is commonly used in the illegal manufacture of methamphetamine through a Birch reduction.
The Birch method of making methamphetamine is dangerous because the alkali metal and liquid ammonia are both extremely reactive, and the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added.
Ammonia (NH3) is one of the most commonly produced industrial chemicals in the United States.
Ammonia is used in industry and commerce, and also exists naturally in humans and in the environment.
Ammonia is essential for many biological processes and serves as a precursor for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis.
In the environment, ammonia is part of the nitrogen cycle and is produced in soil from bacterial processes.
Ammonia is also produced naturally from decomposition of organic matter, including plants, animals and animal wastes.
About 80% of the ammonia produced by industry is used in agriculture as fertilizer.
Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant gas, for purification of water supplies, and in the manufacture of plastics, explosives, textiles, pesticides, dyes and other chemicals.
Ammonia is found in many household and industrial-strength cleaning solutions. Household ammonia cleaning solutions are manufactured by adding ammonia gas to water and can be between 5 and 10% ammonia.
Ammonia solutions for industrial use may be concentrations of 25% or higher and are corrosive.
Ammonium hydroxide commonly known as household ammonia is an ingredient in many household cleaning products used to clean a variety of surfaces including tubs, sinks, toilets, countertops and tiles.
Ammonia also is effective at breaking down household grime or stains from animal fats or vegetable oils, such as cooking grease and wine stains.
Because ammonia evaporates quickly, it is commonly used in glass cleaning solutions to help avoid streaking.
Ammonia is a very important industrial chemical.
Ammonia gas is produced industrially by reacting hydrogen and nitrogen at high temperature and pressure.
This reaction is known as the Haber-Bosch process.
There are many uses for ammonia including the production of fertilisers, plastics, synthetic fibres, dyes, explosives and pharmaceuticals.
In the home, ammonia is used in certain cleaning products and garden fertilisers.
Ammonia is used extensively in the fertilizer industry to produce solid material such as ammonium salts, nitrate salts, and urea.
Ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium phosphate are made directly by neutralizing the corresponding acids-sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and phosphoric acid-with ammonia.
Urea is an organic compound formed by combining ammonia and carbon dioxide.
Ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, and urea are used for direct application to the soil in dry form and in combination with other phosphate and potassium salts.
Ammonia is also used in the production of nitrogen fertilizer solutions that consist of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, and water in various combinations.
Some are pressure solutions and others are not. Nonpressure and lowpressure solutions are widely used for direct application to the soil. Pressure solutions containing free ammonia are used in the manufacture of high-analysis mixed fertilizers.
Ammonia or dissociated ammonia is used in such metal-treating operations as nitriding, carbo-nitriding, bright annealing, furnace brazing, sintering, and other applications where protective atmospheres are required.
Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) is a colorless gas with a sharp, irritating odor, lighter than air, easily liquefied.
An important commercial compound. It was the first complex molecule identified in outer space.
Ammonia is used in the manufacture of nitric acid, hydrazine hydrate, and acrylonitrile, aswell as fertilizers, explosives, and syntheticfibers.
Ammonia is also used in refrigeration.
Ammonia is produced in the so-called Haber Bosch process.
This industrial process uses finely divided iron as catalyst and a reaction temperature of around 450 °C at a pressure of 50 atm.
Ammonia is used to produce fertilisers, nitric acid, nylon and many more products important to our modern life style.
Ammonia is a major feedstock for fertilizer, explosives, plastics, and other chemicals.
The primary use of ammonia is in the production of fertilizers, with approximately 70% of ammonia being used for this purpose. Major fertilizers produced include ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and urea.
Liquid ammonia is used for treatment of cotton materials, giving properties like mercerisation, using alkalis.
In particular, Ammonia is used for prewashing of wool.
At standard temperature and pressure, ammonia is less dense than atmosphere and has approximately 45–48% of the lifting power of hydrogen or helium.
Ammonia has sometimes been used to fill balloons as a lifting gas.
Because of its relatively high boiling point (compared to helium and hydrogen), ammonia could potentially be refrigerated and liquefied aboard an airship to reduce lift and add ballast (and returned to a gas to add lift and reduce ballast).
Ammonia is used in fertilizers but also in a wide range of industrial applications.
Several industries rely heavily on it, including:
-Plastics & resins
When used as a refrigerant gas and in air-conditioning equipment, ammonia can absorb substantial amounts of heat from its surroundings.
Ammonia can be used to purify water supplies and as a building block in the manufacture of many products including plastics, explosives, fabrics, pesticides and dyes.
Ammonia also is used in the waste and wastewater treatment, cold storage, rubber, pulp and paper and food and beverage industries as a stabilizer, neutralizer and a source of nitrogen.
Ammonia also is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.
Ammonia (NH3) is an alkaline gas with a sharp, penetrating odor.
Reacting nitrogen and hydrogen under pressure, in the presence of a catalyst, produces ammonia.
Gaseous ammonia is flammable in air at concentrations of 15–28% by volume. Anhydrous liquid ammonia is a colorless liquid with a strong odor.
Ammonia, because of its unique chemical properties to metal ions, is primarily used in hydrometallurgical processing.
In the mineral processing industry, ammonia is rarely used as a pH regulator.
There was only one operating plant in the world that used ammonia as a pH regulator in treatment of a copper/zinc ore.
Ammonia is an ammonium fertilizer made by the Haber-Bosch process, by reacting hydrogen with nitrogen in the ratio of 3: 1 at high temperatures (450 to 500'C) and pressure (about 500 atm) in the presence of an iron catalyst promoted by potassium and alumina.
The nitrogen derived from air and the hydrogen obtained from synthesis gas, steam reforming of naptha, coal or coke (c) lignite, or (d) electrolysis of water, are purified by standard procedures before use.
The anhydrous ammonia thus produced can be directly used as a fertilizer.
Ammonia can also be converted to ammonium salts which are important fertilizers, by reacting ammonia with nitric, sulphuric and phosphoric acids.
Ammonia is also reacted with carbon dioxide to get urea which is another important source of nitrogen.
Ammonia is an important fluid fertilizer and is the cheapest nitrogen source, having the highest nitrogen content (about 82 %) among nitrogenous fertilizers.
However, because of safety and environmental considerations, many dealers and users are now switching over to other sources of nitrogen.
Anhydrous liquid ammonia can cause dehydration of tissue and severe damage to the skin, lungs and eyes by its freezing and caustic action.
Because of the low vapor pressure (6 bar at lO℃, 9 bar at 20℃ and 12 bar at 3O℃), anhydrous ammonia must be stored and transported in pressure vessels.
Due to the volatile nature of anhydrous ammonia it has to be injected with an applicator 15 to 30 cm below the soil surface to be effective and to reduce ammonia loss.
Ammonia loss depends on the soil type, its moisture content, and the depth to which the applicator is injected.
Ammonia applicators range in size from small 5-row rigs to large rigs that have a swath width of upto 20 m (65 feet) and are pulled by high-powered tractors.
Ammonia is usually metered by a variable orifice-type meter or by a piston pump.
Physical properties of anhydrous ammonia are somewhat similar to other liquids under pressure like butane or propane gas.
Ammonia is also used in the preparation of protein feeds for cattle and sheep, and as a defoliant to hasten the shedding of cotton leaves to facilitate mechanical harvesting.
Ammonia solution is typically not used undiluted in pharmaceutical applications.
Generally, Ammonia is used as a buffering agent or to adjust the pH of solutions.
Most commonly, ammonia solution (the concentrated form) is used to produce more dilute ammonia solutions.
Therapeutically, dilute ammonia solution is used as a reflex stimulant in ‘smelling salts’, as a rubefacient, and as a counterirritant to neutralize insect bites or stings.
Most common metals are not affected by dry ammonia.
However, when combined with water vapor, ammonia will attack copper, zinc, or alloys containing copper as a major alloying
Therefore, these materials should not be used in contact with ammonia.
Certain hightensile- strength steel have developed stresscorrosion cracking in ammonia service, but such cracking can be prevented by the use of 0.2 percent water by weight in the ammonia as an inhibitor.
Ammonia storage tanks and their valves and fittings are usually made of steel.
The major application of ammonia is acting as the fertilizer to supply the nitrogen source of plants and animals.
Ammonia is used in the manufacture of commercial explosive such as TNT.
Ammonia is applied to textile industry for the manufacture of nylon and rayon, the dyeing and scouring of cotton and silk as well as being used as a catalyst in the production of some synthetic resins.
Ammonia also has applications in various metallurgical processes and fermentation processes.
Ammonia can even be used as a cleaner and antimicrobial reagent in the food.
Finally, Ammonia is also an important routine reagent used in lab.
For example, liquid ammonia is a common solvent in the lab.
In current days, ammonia is produced by the Haber-Bosch process which has industrial hydrogen be reacted with atmospheric nitrogen under high temperature and pressure in the presence of catalyst.
For small-scale lab synthesis, ammonia can also be manufactured through the heating of urea and Ca (OH)2.
Low concentration of ammonia has no significant effect on human beings.
However, exposure to high concentration of gaseous ammonia can result in lung damage and even death, thus protective measures should be taken during the operation.
Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristically pungent smell.
Ammonia is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air.
Ammonia is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules; the liquid boils at −33.3 °C (−27.94 °F), and freezes to white crystals at −77.7 °C (−107.86 °F).
Ammonia may be conveniently deodorized by reacting it with either sodium bicarbonate or acetic acid.
Both of these reactions form an odourless ammonium salt.
-At room temperature, ammonia is a colorless, highly irritating gas with a pungent, suffocating odor.
-In pure form, it is known as anhydrous ammonia and is hygroscopic (readily absorbs moisture).
-Ammonia has alkaline properties and is corrosive.
-Ammonia gas dissolves easily in water to form ammonium hydroxide, a caustic solution and weak base.
-Ammonia gas is easily compressed and forms a clear liquid under pressure.
-Ammonia is usually shipped as a compressed liquid in steel containers.
-Ammonia is not highly flammable, but containers of ammonia may explode when exposed to high heat.
The crystal symmetry is cubic, Pearson symbol cP16, space group P213 No.198, lattice constant 0.5125 nm.
Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionising powers reflecting its high ε of 22.
Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf. water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/mol, phosphine 14.6 kJ/mol) and can therefore be used in laboratories in uninsulated vessels without additional refrigeration.
Ammonia readily dissolves in water.
In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling.
The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic.
The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ammonia'.
Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air.
When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame.
Ignition occurs when chlorine is passed into ammonia, forming nitrogen and hydrogen chloride; if chlorine is present in excess, then the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed.
At high temperature and in the presence of a suitable catalyst, ammonia is decomposed into its constituent elements.
Decomposition of ammonia is a slightly endothermic process requiring 23 kJ/mol (5.5 kcal/mol) of ammonia, and yields hydrogen and nitrogen gas.
Ammonia can also be used as a source of hydrogen for acid fuel cells if the unreacted ammonia can be removed.
Ruthenium and platinum catalysts were found to be the most active, whereas supported Ni catalysts were the less active.
At atmospheric pressure, ammonia is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent odor, which is extremely irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract.
Ammonia is approximately half as dense as air and thus rises readily. With pressurization, 13 cubic feet of ammonia vapor can be condensed into 1 cubic foot.
Ammonia is a common chemical of production, holding a third place in world production..
The large-scale use of ammonia is facilitated by large-scale storage tanks containing millions of gallons of anhydrous ammonia with a network of piping for off-loading to train or truck.
Industrial exposures come from its use in fertilizers, explosives, intermediary in chemical productions, metallurgy, paper/pulp manufacturing, and refrigeration (Makarovsky et al., 2008).
At standard temperature and pressure, NH3 is a colorless gas with a penetrating, pungent-sharp odor in small concentrations which, in heavy concentrations, produces a smothering sensation when inhaled.
Formula weight is 17.03, and sp gr 0.817 (at ?79 °C) and 0.617 (at 15 °C).
Ammonia is very soluble in water, a saturated solution containing approximately 45% NH3 (weight) at the freezing temperature of the solution and about 30% (weight) at standard conditions.
Ammonia dissolved in water forms a strongly alkaline solution of ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH.
The univalent radical many respects like K+ and Na+ in vigorously reacting with acids to form salts.
Ammonia is an excellent nonaqueous electrolytic solvent, its ionizing power approaching that of water.
Ammonia burns with a greenish-yellow flame.
Ammonia is a colorless, strongly alkaline, and extremely soluble gas with a pungent, suffocating odor.
Strong ammonia solution occurs as a clear, colorless liquid having an exceedingly pungent, characteristic odor.
Ammonia is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic materials.
The PhEur 6.0 states that concentrated ammonia solution contains not less than 25.0% and not more than 30.0% w/w of ammonia (NH3).
The USP32– NF27 states that strong ammonia solution contains not less than 27.0% and not more than 31.0% w/w of ammonia (NH3).
Anhydrous ammonia, a major commercial chemical, is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, HN03, acrylonitrile, and other products, and as an electrolytic solvent.
Colorless gas with a penetrating, pungent, suffocating odor.
An experimentally determined odor threshold concentration of 45.8 ppmv was reported by Leonardos et al.
A detection odor threshold concentration of 11.6 mg/m3 (16.7 ppmv) was experimentally determined by Nishida et al.
The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape as predicted by the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR theory) with an experimentally determined bond angle of 106.7°.
The central nitrogen atom has five outer electrons with an additional electron from each hydrogen atom.
This gives a total of eight electrons, or four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally.
Three of these electron pairs are used as bond pairs, which leaves one lone pair of electrons.
The lone pair repels more strongly than bond pairs, therefore the bond angle is not 109.5°, as expected for a regular tetrahedral arrangement, but 106.7°.
This shape gives the molecule a dipole moment and makes it polar.
The molecule's polarity, and especially, its ability to form hydrogen bonds, makes ammonia highly miscible with water.
The lone pair makes ammonia a base, a proton acceptor.
Ammonia is moderately basic; a 1.0 M aqueous solution has a pH of 11.6, and if a strong acid is added to such a solution until the solution is neutral (pH = 7), 99.4% of the ammonia molecules are protonated.
Temperature and salinity also affect the proportion of NH4+.
The latter has the shape of a regular tetrahedron and is isoelectronic with methane.
The ammonia molecule readily undergoes nitrogen inversion at room temperature; a useful analogy is an umbrella turning itself inside out in a strong wind.
The energy barrier to this inversion is 24.7 kJ/mol, and the resonance frequency is 23.79 GHz, corresponding to microwave radiation of a wavelength of 1.260 cm.
The absorption at this frequency was the first microwave spectrum to be observed.,
Ammonia is a chemical found in trace quantities in nature, being produced from nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter.
Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonia guano.
The kidneys secrete ammonia to neutralize excess acid.
Ammonium salts are found distributed through fertile soil and in seawater.
Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K (−100 °C; −148 °F) if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
Immediately report leaks, spills or failures of the safety equipment (e.g. ventilation system).
In event of a spill or leak, immediately put on escape-type respirator and exit the area.
Do NOT work alone with this product.
Get medical attention for all exposures.
Symptoms can be delayed.
Prevent accidental contact with incompatible chemicals.
Use corrosion-resistant tools and equipment.
Eliminate heat and ignition sources such as sparks, open flames, hot surfaces and static discharge.
Post "No Smoking" signs.
Do not use near welding operations or other high energy sources.
Do not weld, cut or perform hot work on empty container until all traces of product have been removed.
Use the pressure regulator appropriate for cylinder pressure and contents.
Secure cylinder in an up-right position.
Protect cylinders from damage.
Use a suitable hand truck to move cylinders; do not drag, roll, slide, or drop.
Keep containers tightly closed when not in use or empty.
Store in an area that is: cool, dry, out of direct sunlight and away from heat and ignition sources, separate from incompatible materials, secure and separate from work areas, an approved, fire-resistant area.
Store in the original, labelled, shipping container.
Always secure (e.g. chain) cylinders in an upright position to a wall, rack or other solid structure.
Empty containers may contain hazardous residue.
Comply with all applicable health and safety regulations, fire and building codes.
Spirit of hartshorn