Amphoteric surfactants refers to a surfactant simultaneously carrying the anionic and cationic hydrophilic group with its structure containing simultaneously hermaphroditic ions which are able to form cation or anion according to the (such as pH changes) ambient conditions.
From the practical perspective, the usually adopted cationic part is amine salt or quaternary ammonium hydrophilic group while the anionic moiety is a carboxylate, sulfonate, phosphate hydrophilic group, especially the amino acid type amphoteric surfactants that contains both amino and carboxy group or the intramolecular ammonium salt type amphoteric surfactants consisting of carboxyl group and a quaternary ammonium group.
Amphoteric surfactants contain two types, one of which is pH-sensitive while the other is not sensitive at all pH ranges.
The aqueous solution of former has varying dissociation degrees with varying pH value.
When it exhibits alkalinity, it exhibits anionic surfactants agent properties; upon exhibiting acidity, it exhibits properties of cation surfactant; upon being neutral, it exhibits non-ionic surfactant properties.
The balance point of the cationic type and anionic type is called isoelectric point.
The amino acid type Amphoteric surfactants will form precipitate at the isoelectric point.
Compare with it, the intra-ammonium salt type amphoteric surfactants can still maintain a excellent solubility in the isoelectric point.
Others types such as hydroxy-imidazoline and N- alkyl betaine type exhibit cationic properties upon acidicity.
Another example is sulfonic acid type betaine and phosphonyl group betaine Amphoteric surfactantss used in shampoos; at all pH values, they exhibits anionic.
The lecithin contained in egg yolk belongs to a phospholipid-type Amphoteric surfactants and is the only ionic surfactants that can be used in the food industry.
Amphoteric surfactants is almost insoluble in water with excellent emulsifying properties of oil.
Generally speaking, Amphoteric surfactants has low toxicity, antibacterial properties, excellent resistance to hard water, and excellent compatibility with various kinds of surfactants.
Therefore, it can be used as shampoo-purpose foaming agents with high safety, detergent fiber as well as microbicides.
E.g., an alkyl group glycine (diamine- ethyl- group) and di (alkyl amino- ethyl group) glycine can be used as a germicide-purpose amino acid-type amphoteric surfactants.
Another example is the quaternized fatty acid amides glycine with mild properties and almost no irritating effect.
Amphoteric surfactants can be used in baby shampoos.
Lauryllactam imidazolium salts are used as the foaming agent of shampoo powder.
The amido propyl betaine contained in coconut is also a kind of Amphoteric surfactantsand can be used for mild shampoos and skin cleansers.
In general, amphoteric surfactants are rarely used alone and are mostly used in compound with fatty alcohol sulfates in order to improve the solubility, reduce the irritation property, increase the viscosity as well as increase the foam stability.
Amphoteric surfactants may also be used as the antistatic agents of synthetic fiber as well as metal rust agent.
Because of the high cost, it applications are subject to certain restrictions.
Amphoteric surfactants are categories undergoing rapid development in recent years.
Because of their low toxicity and low irritation on the skin and eyes during the usage process as well as excellent biodegradability, resistance to hard water, emulsifying, dispersing, wetting, foaming, antistatic property, and the high compatibility with all other types of surfactants, their applications in daily chemical industry, textile industry, food, pharmaceuticals, dyes and pigments are growing.
Amphoteric surfactants can be used as textile finishing auxiliaries, dyeing auxiliaries, dispersants and dry cleaning agents.
Although its price is a bit high, because of some of the above advantages, the application in some cases is sufficient to compensate for the defects of high price.
Amphoteric Surfactants are a primary component of cleaning detergents.
The word surfactant means surface active agent.
As the name implies, surfactants stir up activity on the surface you are cleaning to help trap dirt and remove it from the surface.
Amphoteric Surfactants have a hydrophobic (water-hating) tail and a hydrophilic (water-loving) head.
The hydrophobic tail of each surfactant surrounds soils.
The hydrophilic head is surrounded by water.
How do surfactants work?
When there are a sufficient amount of surfactant molecules present in a solution they combine together to form structures called micelles.
As the micelle forms, the surfactant heads position themselves so they are exposed to water, while the tails are grouped together in the center of the structure protected from water.
The micelles work as a unit to remove soils.
The hydrophobic tails are attracted to soils and surround them, while the hydrophilic heads pull the surrounded soils off the surface and into the cleaning solution.
Then the micelles reform with the tails suspending the soil in the center of the structure.
Amphoteric surfactants have a dual charge on their hydrophilic end, both positive and negative.
The dual charges cancel each other out creating a net charge of zero, referred to as zwitterionic.
The pH of any given solution will determine how the amphoteric surfactants react.
In acidic solutions, the amphoteric surfactants become positively charged and behave similarly to cationic surfactants.
In alkaline solutions, they develop a negative charge, similar to anionic surfactants.
Amphoteric surfactants are often used in personal care products such as shampoos and cosmetics.
Examples of some frequently used amphoteric surfactants are betaines and amino oxides.
Amphoteric surfactants have both cationic and anionic centers attached to the same molecule.
The cationic part is based on primary, secondary, or tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium cations.
The anionic part can be more variable and include sulfonates, as in the sultaines CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate) and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine.
Betaines such as cocamidopropyl betaine have a carboxylate with the ammonium.
The most common biological Amphoteric surfactants have a phosphate anion with an amine or ammonium, such as the phospholipids phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelins.
Lauryldimethylamine oxide and myristamine oxide are two commonly used Amphoteric surfactants of the tertiary amine oxides structural type.
Surface-active compounds with both acidic and alkaline properties are known as amphoteric surfactants.
Amphoteric surfactants include two main groups, i.e. betaines and real amphoteric surfactants based on fatty alkyl imidazolines.
The key functional groups in the chemical structures are the more or less quaternized nitrogen and the carboxylic group.
Betaines are characterized by a fully quaternized nitrogen atom and do not exhibit anionic properties in alkaline solutions, which means that betaines are present only as ‘zwitterions’.
Another group of amphoterics is designated imidazoline derivatives because of the formation of an intermediate imidazoline structure during the synthesis of some of these surfactants.
This group contains the real amphoteric surfactants that form cations in acidic solutions, anions in alkaline solutions, and ‘zwitterions’ in mid-pH range solutions.
The mid-pH range (isoelectric range) in which the surfactant has a neutral charge is compound specific and depends on the alkalinity of the nitrogen atom and the acidity of the carboxylic group (Domsch 1995).
Amphoteric surfactants are used in personal care products (e.g. hair shampoos and conditioners, liquid soaps, and cleansing lotions) and in all-purpose and industrial cleaning agents.
The total volume of amphoteric surfactants consumed in commercial products today is relatively small (see Chapter 2), but the consumption of these chemicals is expected to increase in the future because of the request for milder surfactants.
Besides acting as mild surfactants, the amphoterics may improve the mildness of especially anionic surfactants.
By volume, the most important groups of amphoteric surfactants today consist of alkylamido betaines and alkyl betaines.
The use of alkylamphoacetates in personal care products is expected to grow in coming years.
Betaines are primarily used in personal care products like, e.g. hair shampoos, liquid soaps, and cleansing lotions.
Other applications include all-purpose cleaning agents, hand dishwashing agents, and special textile detergents.
All betaines are characterized by a fully quaternized nitrogen.
In alkyl betaines, one of the methyl groups in the ‘betaine’ structure (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is replaced by a linear alkyl chain.
A special type of betaines is the hydroxysulfobetaines in which the carboxylic group of alkyl betaine is replaced by sulfonate and a hydroxy-group is inserted in the hydrophilic part of the molecule.
In alkylamido betaines, an amide group is inserted as a link between the hydrophobic alkyl chain and the hydrophilic moiety.
The most commonly used alkylamido betaine is alkylamidopropyl betaine (e.g., cocoamidopropyl betaine), whereas alkylamidoethyl betaines are used in smaller amounts.
Amphoterics are surfactants with ionic charge and they can change between anionic properties, the isoelectric neutral stage and the cationic properties depending on the pH value.
Amphoteric surfactants have characteristics of stability against electrolytes, acids, alkalis, and hard water.
Anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants are compatible with amphoteric surfactants.
The major amphoteric surfactants are alkylamidopropylamine N-oxide (APAO), alkyldimethylamine N-oxide (AO), alkylbetaine (Bt) and alkylamidopropylbetaine (APB).
Cocamidopropyl betaine, cocoamphoacetate and cocoamphodiacetate are also some commonly-used amphoteric surfactants.
The amphoterics are dermatologically mild surfactants owing to their behaviour and protein-like structure.
They can form complexes with anionic surfactants, show good surface-active functions over a wide range of pH and are able to reduce their irritative properties, and as a result they are mainly used as mild surfactants in cosmetics, toiletries and hand dishwashing liquids.
Amphoterics surfactants have many effects such as cleansing, foaming, emulsifying, solubilizing, low toxicity, easy-biodegradation and so on.
In addition, the application of amphoteric surfactants is related closely to the synergistic effects of amphoteric surfactant with other surfactants.
Amphoteric surfactants can cooperate with other surfactants such as non-ionic surfactants, anionic surfactants.
In a word, amphoteric surfactants form part of special surfactants available for formulators to improve or design new formulations in response to environmental, toxicity, safety and performance demands.
Personal care products, toiletries
Amphoteric surfactants have following excellent surfactant properties such as its low irritation to skin, eyes and mucous membranes, a moderate antimicrobial activity, the lack of toxicity, good mildness-enhancing ability, wetting power, cleansing ability, foaming power, hard water tolerance, and lime soap dispersibility, stability in extreme pH conditions, compatibility with other ingredients.
Amphoteric surfactants are widely applied in personal care products such as moisturizing body wash products, shaving products, shampoos, toothpastes, contact lens detergents and other skin care and hair care cosmetics.
Amphoteric surfactants strongly contribute to the viscosity build-up in cosmetic cleansing formulations.
This is surely due to the sodium chloride content but also due to synergistic interaction between the anionic primary surfactant and the neutral or positive charged amphoteric.
The reasons for the wide utilization of amphoterics in personal care products are their good cleansing power and lather characteristics, and compatibility with different pH.
There are also other excellent properties that lead to the application of amphoteric surfactants in domestic detergents.
The properties are as follows:
(2) strong anti-electrolytes
(3) low toxicity and high detoxification
(4) high efficiency at low concentration
(5) improvement of scourability.
Amphoteric surfactants play role in these formulations as hosphate builders, enzyme stabilizers, bleaching agents and color-protecting reagents.
In addition, they can be used as the main surfactants in mild dishwashing detergents.
Amphoteric surfactants can ensure the compatibility of each ingredient in liquid products under strong alkaline conditions.
Amphoteric surfactants are stable in strong alkali and have high alkali solubility, so amphoteric surfactants can be used in water-based alkaline cleaning agents.
When the molecules of amphoteric surfactants contain multiple anionic groups and exhibit the properties of anions or those of cations according to the pH of the solution, they are more favorable for the application of strong alkali.
Amphoteric surfactants have strong hydrophilic rejection in that circumstances, show the function of water dissolving and increase the contact between the product and the substrate.
Amphoteric surfactants can be anionic, cationic or uncharged, independent of their acid content or pH value.
They are therefore compatible with other surfactant types and are often used as co-surfactants in an incredibly wide range of applications.
Since they are mild and easy on the skin, they are used in baby products, shampoo, cosmetics and disinfectants, and thanks to their strong foaming properties, in dish soap.
While their pure cleaning power is usually weak, they can also be used as an anti-static agent.
Amphoteric surfactants have long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain and hydrophilic positive as well as negative charged center connected with each other by a spacer group.
Thus, this type of surfactant maintains overall charged neutrality.
The properties of amphoteric surfactants depend primarily on the length of the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, the number of methylene segments in the spacer, the positive and negative charged groups, and their relative position.
The ionic activity of amphoteric surfactants is influenced according to the pH value of the solvent.
They display cationic behavior below the isoelectric points and anionic behavior at a higher pH.
They take the shape of zwitterions in the area of the isoelectric point.
In fact, amphoteric surfactants can be parted into pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive surfactants.
The pH-insensitive surfactants stay as zwitterionic form irrespective of the pH of the solution.
This surfactant has some unique features because of its precise molecular structure as follows: high water solubility, high surface activities, a wide isoelectric range, low critical micelle concentration (CMC), high foam stability, low toxicity, low irritating, excellent biodegradability, bioactivity, interface change, and so on.
Because of these special characteristics, amphoteric surfactants have been immensely interested in many applications in the scientific community, including cosmetics, chromatography, enhanced oil recovery, electrochemistry, nanoscience, polymer chemistry, and waste water treatment.
An Amphoteric surfactant is a chemical compound concomitantly carrying out the anionic and cationic hydrophilic group.
It’s chemical structure contains simultaneously hermaphroditic ions and forms a cation or anion dependant on ambient conditions.
The Librateric series are salt free dipropionates, conventional Amphoteric surfactants can contain up to 7% salt.
The Librateric series are highly versatile and are compatible with various different types of surfactants, including their stability at high temperatures or in acid and alkaline conditions aids in the performance of the surfactant.
Products from the series have low irritancy.
Amphoteric Surfactants are versatile surfactants that exhibit cationic behavior at acidic pH, anionic behavior at alkaline pH, and nonionic behavior within their isoelectric or zwitterion range.
Amphoterics, also known as amphiphilic or zwitterionic surfactants, are generally used in combination with primary surfactants such as sulfates or nonionics to improve foaming properties, thickening, and cleaning performance.
Amphoteric surfactants are used in a variety of formulations and markets including HI&I, oilfield, and personal care.
Betaines possess cationic behavior in the lower pH range and are zwitterions throughout the rest of the pH range maintaining both a positive and negative charge.
Betaines exhibit excellent stability across a wide pH range and are exceptional foam boosters and viscosity builders when used in combination with primary surfactants.
Betaines have foam stability in hard water and are also used in wide variety of markets.
Amphoteric Surfactants, is a readily biodegradable, multifunctional, high foaming amphoteric surfactant that contributes detergency, wetting, hydrotroping and emulsification properties.
It’s salt-free and brine stable and can be used across a wide pH range including in strong acid and highly alkaline systems.
It’s an effective acid corrosion inhibitor exhibiting excellent corrosion protection for a variety of metals (including aluminum) in hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids.
It can be formulated into strong acid cleaners including sulfuric and oxalic acid systems.
Amphoteric Surfactants is approved for use as an inert in non-food pesticides, and due to its mildness, can also be used in Personal Care applications and is an excellent choice for dispensed-as-foam hand soap.
The rising demand for personal care products, coupled with the increasing demand for high-performance surfactants is driving the growth of the market for amphoteric surfactants across the globe.
However, the formulation and stringent implementation of various regulations to monitor the release of toxic chemicals and gases into the environment during the manufacturing of amphoteric surfactants are expected to restrain the growth of the amphoteric surfactants market during the forecast period.
The demand for amine oxide is very high in the home care and Industrial & Institutional (I&I) cleaning application due to the excellent foaming and cleansing properties of amine oxide.
Moreover, it has the ability to decrease skin irritation.
Amine oxide is used in the oxygen bleaching and cleansing products due to its inherent stability in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
Amphoteric surfactants substances have the intrinsic ability to change the charge from cationic via zwitterions to anionic, assuming an increasing pH.
Amphoteric surfactants are extremely suitable for use in formulations that contain a lot of electrolytes and are compatible with all other types of surfactants.
Our range of amphoteric surfactants is listed below.
These surfactants all have specific qualities and can be of added value in your formulations.
The following core values are often attributed to our products when using our amphoteric tensides:
• Surface activity
• Foaming (low or high)
• High electrolyte stability
• Compatibility with cationic, anionic and non-ionic tensides
Our amphoteric tensides are used in a wide range of applications:
• Acidic and alkaline detergents
• Textile auxiliaries
• Vehicle cleaning
• High pressure cleaners
The increasing demand for amphoteric surfactants from the personal care sector is one of the major drivers that is driving the growth of the global Amphoteric Surfactants Market.
Also, the growing demand for high-performance Amphoteric Surfactants is expected to drive the growth of the global Amphoteric Surfactants Market.
The Global Amphoteric Surfactants Market report provides a holistic evaluation of the market.
The report offers a comprehensive analysis of key segments, trends, drivers, restraints, competitive landscape, and factors that are playing a substantial role in the market.
The amphoteric surfactants are surfactants that carry out the anionic and cationic hydrophilic group simultaneously.
This structure contains hermaphroditic ions.
These ions can form cation and anion according to changes in ambient conditions.
The amphoteric surfactants are classified into two types, one of them is pH sensitive and the other one is not pH sensitive.
The amphoteric surfactants have low levels of toxicity and due to its antibacterial properties and excellent resistance to hard water, it is widely being used in the production of personal care products.
The amphoteric surfactants-based products have no irritating effects and can be used in baby shampoos as well.
amphoteric surfactants, which are capable of both positive and negative charges depending on the pH conditions of the solution they are in.
Amphoteric surfactants can have both a negative charge and a positive charge, depending on the pH.
These materials are also referred to as zwitterionic materials, and they include ingredients such as cocamidopropyl betaine, cocoamphopropionate, and sodium lauraminopropionate.
These three ingredients are probably the most commonly used amphoteric surfactants in cleansing products, particularly in shampoos.
Amphoterics are used because they have good detergency and are less irritating than the anionics.
They also can help thicken a formula and have a positive effect on foam, as they make the bubbles smaller and feel creamier.
The main drawback to using them is that they are significantly more expensive and, on their own, don’t really foam well enough to produce a good shampoo.
Amphoteric surfactants are compounds containing both types of groups in the composition of molecules: acidic (most often carboxylic) and basic (usually an amino group of different degrees of substitution).
Depending on the pH of the medium, they can exhibit the properties of cationic (pH <4), nonionic (4–9), anionic (pH> 9) surfactants.
This combination of surface-active properties of molecules of different classes of surfactants in one amphoteric surfactant molecule allows to increase the effectiveness of detergents.
Amphoteric surfactants soften tissues, hair, have an antistatic effect, are effective when used in hard and cold water.
Amphoteric surfactants are well combined with surfactants of all kinds, have good foaming properties, bactericidal activity and dermatological properties.
Amphoteric is surfactants with an ionic charge, which can change between anionic properties, the isoelectric neutral stage, and the cationic properties depending on the pH value.
Amphoteric surfactants possess the properties of stability against electrolytes, acids, alkalis, and hard water.
Amphoteric Surfactants find their best application in the personal care and cosmetics industry.
Amphoteric surfactants are surfactants such as betaines, amine oxides or amphoacetates, which contain both a negatively and positively charged functional group, and are therefore also known as zwitterionic surfactants.
Amphoteric surfactants are used as a formulation component in the detergent and cleaning agent industry, and in cosmetic formulations.
In construction, these groups of substances are mainly used as a wetting agent as well as air-entraining agent.
Description of Amphoteric Surfactant: surfactants (Surface Active Ingredients) are chemicals used to lower the surface tension between different substances.
Almost all Surfactants have the same structure, a long, hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head.
The tails are very similar in most surfactants, the difference lies mainly in the hydrophilic head. This head can either be nonionic, anionic, cationic or amphoteric.
Whatever the structure, most surfactants work by creating micelles.
These are small bubbles in which the surfactants have arranged themselves with their hydrophilic heads towards the solution, and the hydrophobic tail towards the center of the micelle. This traps particles inside and allows it to function like a cleaning agent.
Amphoteric surfactants have both a positive and a negative charge on their hydrophilic head.
This means that how they function depends on the pH of the solution.
Normally, in acidic solutions (pH<7) Amphoteric Surfactants are positively charged and therefore act like Cationic Surfactants.
In alkaline solutions (pH>7) Amphoteric Surfactants are negatively charged, thus acting like Anionic Surfactants.
Amphoteric surfactants are mainly used in Personal Care products like Shampoos and less so in cleaning applications.
Common Amphoteric Surfactants are Betaines (Betaine CP38) and salt free Dipropionates (Dipropionate CI38).
AMPHOTERIC SURFACTANTS are widely used in personal care products because of their mildness, cleaning and viscosity modifying properties.
Their use in household and industrial & institutional (I&I) cleaning products is increasing as well.
That is because amphoteric surfactants provide a wide range of benefits in finished formulations due to their mildness, improved wetting properties, low foaming characteristics, stability in the presence of alkalis and acids and good hydrotroping and coupling ability.
In addition, amphoterics have a good biodegradability profile, are excellent viscosity modifiers and have good tolerance in hard water.
Moreover, they have excellent emulsification properties, are compatible with quats and exhibit good dye transfer inhibition.
They are ideal for low or nonstreak glass cleaning applications.
Amphoterics possess excellent surface properties. They show good surface tension and critical micelle concentration properties.
The CMC and surface tension data is listed in table 1.
Wetting and penetration is a requirement in the majority of cleaning products. Amphoterics are good wetting agents that can be used at practically the entire pH range.
Amphoterics can be high, moderate or low foaming surfactants.
Probably the least talked about surfactants are the amphoterics.
These unique molecules possess both a positive and a negative charge on their hydrophilic end, giving them a net charge of zero.
Amphoteric surfactants have little utility on their own, but work extremely well in enhancing the cleaning effect of both anionic and nonionic surfactants.
They can serve as “coupling agents,” which hold the surfactants, solvents and inorganic salt components of a formula together.
Amphoterics are usually named in some way to indicate that they are amphoterics, as in amphoterge. Other examples of amphoterics are betaines and amine oxides.