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Ascorbic Acid  =  Vitamin C

CAS number:  50-81-7 

EC number: 200-066-2 

 Molecular formula: C6H8O6

Ascorbic Acid is a natural water-soluble vitamin (Ascorbic acid).  
Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, connective tissue, skin, and capillaries. 
Found in citrus and other fruits, and in vegetables, Ascorbic acid cannot be produced or stored by humans and must be obtained in the diet. (NCI04)
Ascorbic acid (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. 
Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy. 
Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. 
Ascorbic acid is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. 
Ascorbic acid also functions as an antioxidant. Most animals and plants are able to synthesize their own Ascorbic acid, however, humans and other apes, most bats, some rodents and certain other animals cannot and must acquire it from dietary sources.
Ascorbic acid, a water-soluble dietary supplement, is consumed by humans more than any other supplement. 
The name ascorbic means antiscurvy and denotes the ability of ascorbic to combat this disease. 
Ascorbic acid is the l-enantiomer of ascorbic acid. 
Ascorbic acid deficiency in humans results in the body’s inability to synthesize collagen, which is the most abundant protein in vertebrates.

There is some evidence that regular use of supplements may reduce the duration of the common cold, but it does not appear to prevent infection. 
Ascorbic acid is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia. 
Ascorbic acid may be taken by mouth or by injection.
Ascorbic acid is generally well tolerated. 
Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin. 
Normal doses are safe during pregnancy. 
The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.
Ascorbic acid was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced. 
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. 
Ascorbic acid is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication. 
Partly for its discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively. 
Foods containing Ascorbic acid include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and strawberries. 
Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce Ascorbic acid content in foods.

Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. 
The term Ascorbic acid encompasses several vitamers that have Ascorbic acid activity in animals. 
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. 
These release ascorbate upon digestion. Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH. 
Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.
Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, chewable tablets, chewable gels (gummies), and liquid drops to be given by mouth. 
Ascorbic acid usually is taken once a day or as directed by your doctor. Ascorbic acid is available without a prescription, but your doctor may prescribe ascorbic acid to treat certain conditions. 
Follow the directions on the package or on your product label or doctor's instructions carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. 
Take ascorbic acid exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than recommended by your doctor.
Ascorbic Acid is an over the counter and prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency (Scurvy), Urinary Acidification and as a nutritional supplement. 
Ascorbic Acid may be used alone or with other medications.

-Ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. 
-Ascorbic acid is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. 
-Ascorbic acid also helps the body absorb iron, which is needed for red blood cell production.
-Ascorbic acid is used to treat and prevent Ascorbic acid deficiency.
-Ascorbic acid is an unnecessary additive, which can weaken the gluten in longer-fermented doughs.
-We believe that bakers improving their knowledge and skills to get the most out of natural ingredients is more beneficial all round than falling back on an artificial additive
-By helping gluten to ‘relax’ it can have the incidental effect of increasing the speed of rising, which is moving in the wrong direction of our aim to encouraging bakers to prolong dough fermentation.
Sodium, potassium, and calcium salts of ascorbic acids are called ascorbates and are used as food preservatives. 
To make ascorbic acid fat-soluble, it can be esterified. Esters of ascorbic acid and acids, such as palmitic acid to form ascorbyl palmitate and stearic acid to form ascorbic stearate, are used as antioxidants in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. 
Ascorbic acid is also essential in the metabolism of some amino acids. 
Ascorbic acid helps protect cells from free radical damage, helps iron absorption, and is essential for many metabolic processes.

Ascorbic acid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) is a nutrient your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. 
Ascorbic acid is also vital to your body's healing process.
A natural water-soluble vitamin (Ascorbic acid). 
Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, connective tissue, skin, and capillaries. 
Found in citrus and other fruits, and in vegetables, Ascorbic acid cannot be produced or stored by humans and must be obtained in the diet.
Ascorbic acid is Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant that’s sometimes used as a dietary supplement or to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease caused by a lack of Ascorbic acid in the body).  
Ascorbic acid, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin with many functions. 
Most animals and plants can produce their own Ascorbic acid from glucose. 
Humans must obtain Ascorbic acid from food, as some fruit bats, guinea pigs, and human-like primates cannot produce Ascorbic acid.

Ascorbic acid is a monosaccharide derivative, similar in structure to glucose and other six-carbon monosaccharides. 
They are colorless, white, oblong crystals. 
Ascorbic acid has a very light specific smell. 
Ascorbic acid tastes sour and has an acid reaction. Optically active. 
Turns polarized light to the right. 
Ascorbic acid is very poorly soluble in acetone. 

Ascorbic acid is insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and oils. 
Chemically, Ascorbic acid is the left-reversing enantiomer of ascorbic acid. 
Commercial Ascorbic acid is generally composed of ascorbic acid crystals or calcium or sodium salts of ascorbic acid. 
Ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) is found in very high concentrations (millimolar and above) in the aqueous parts of many animal tissues such as the spinal cord, lungs and eyes.
Ascorbic acid is an essential vitamin, meaning your body can’t produce it. 
Yet, Ascorbic acid has many roles and has been linked to impressive health benefits.
Ascorbic acid’s water-soluble and found in many fruits and vegetables, including oranges, strawberries, kiwi fruit, bell peppers, broccoli, kale, and spinach.
The recommended daily intake for Ascorbic acid is 75 mg for women and 90 mg for men (1Trusted Source).

While it’s commonly advised to get your Ascorbic acid intake from foods, many people turn to supplements to meet their needs.
Precise measurement of Ascorbic acid is essential for both its biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. 
The role of ascorbic acid in biological systems, the function and requirements of Ascorbic acid must be considered together with two factors: First, the biochemical properties of Ascorbic acid, including its ability to act as both an antioxidant and an enzyme cofactor. 
The second is its pharmacokinetics, including intestinal absorption, serum concentration, cellular distribution, utilization and excretion.

Ascorbic acid is found in all living tissues. 
The richest sources of this vitamin, which is very common in nature, are fresh fruits and vegetables. 
Among the fruits, those containing the most ascorbic acid; lemon, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, pineapple, strawberry and blackcurrant. 
Apple, pear and plum, on the other hand, contain less ascorbic acid. 
Among these fruits, especially citrus fruits (lemon, orange, grapefruit), kiwi and tomato outer parts (skin) are rich in ascorbic acid.
Vegetables, especially rosehip, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, onion, pepper, radish, cress, parsley and Jerusalem artichoke are the richest sources of ascorbic acid.

Usage areas:

-Boric acid has been used to control a wide variety of pests such as ants, pests, cockroaches and various insects.
-Ascorbic acid is also used as a fungicide for citrus, herbicide along the right-of-way, fire retardant and wood preservative.
-When used as an herbicide, it will dry out and disrupt photosynthesis in plants.
-Boric acid is also used in industry, with its main use in the manufacture of textile fiberglass.
-Ascorbic acid is used to reinforce plastics in various products such as boats, computer circuit boards and pipes.
-Ascorbic acid can be used in solution form or in dry powder form.
-Boric acid is even used for a variety of medicinal purposes, such as applying to abraded skin or eyewash. It is used as an antiseptic to get rid of cuts and minor burns.

People also commonly take Ascorbic acid to lessen the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold.
Ascorbic acid or ascorbic acid is one of the most common and essential vitamins. 
Due to its protective role, the supplementation of Ascorbic acid becomes a must especially during the higher pollution levels. 
A day after day, scientists and researchers discover new functions for Ascorbic acid. 
Ascorbic acid was and still one of the cheapest treatment modalities that could preserve and protect human beings from infections, toxification, autoimmune diseases and cancer development. 
The role of Ascorbic acid in providing better esthetics exhibits great importance. 
Its role as anti-aging agent preserves skin color and texture. 
Although it is not naturally synthesized in our bodies, our food is entirely rich of it.

Ascorbic acid is produced only in non-humans as primate species, guinea pigs, fishes and birds. 
Although most of the animals have the ability to synthesis their needs of Ascorbic acid, humans suffer from mutation in the DNA coding of gulonolactone oxidase which is the main enzyme responsible for ascorbic acid synthesis. 
Due to this mutation, the external supplement of Ascorbic acid becomes a must.
Ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) is a potent reducing agent, meaning that it readily donates electrons to recipient molecules. 
Related to this oxidation-reduction (redox) potential, two major functions of Ascorbic acid are as an antioxidant and as an enzyme cofactor.
Ascorbic acid is the primary water-soluble, non-enzymatic antioxidant in plasma and tissues. 
Even in small amounts, Ascorbic acid can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated during normal metabolism, by active immune cells, and through exposure to toxins and pollutants (e.g., certain chemotherapy drugs and cigarette smoke). 
Ascorbic acid also participates in redox recycling of other important antioxidants; for example, Ascorbic acid is known to regenerate vitamin E from its oxidized form (see the article on Vitamin E).

The role of Ascorbic acid as a cofactor is also related to its redox potential. 
By maintaining enzyme-bound metals in their reduced forms, Ascorbic acid assists mixed-function oxidases in the synthesis of several critical biomolecules. 
These enzymes are either monooxygenases or dioxygenases. 
Symptoms of Ascorbic acid deficiency, such as poor wound healing and lethargy, likely result from the impairment of these Ascorbic acid-dependent enzymatic reactions leading to the insufficient synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and catecholamines (see Deficiency).
Moreover, several dioxygenases involved in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of genome integrity require Ascorbic acid as a cofactor. 
Indeed, research has recently uncovered the crucial role played by enzymes, such as the TET dioxygenases and Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases, in the fate of cells and tissues. 
These enzymes contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by catalyzing reactions involved in the demethylation of DNA and histones.
The main source of Ascorbic acid for human beings is mainly found in fruits and vegetables. 
Citrus fruits and other types are particularly rich sources of Ascorbic acid as; cantaloupe, water melon, berries, pineapple, strawberries, cherries, kiwi fruits, mangoes, and tomatoes. Furthermore, vegetables are considered the main source of Ascorbic acid due to its higher content and availability for longer period throughout the year such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bean sprouts, cauliflower, mustard greens, peppers, peas and potatoes.
Ascorbic acid is important for maintaining healthy bones, teeth, connective tissue, muscles, skin, and capillaries. 
Ascorbic acid also helps your body absorb iron.

Many foods are naturally high in Ascorbic acid, including citrus fruits, leafy vegetables, and tomatoes.
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells against the effects of free radicals molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation from the sun, X-rays or other sources. 
Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. 
Ascorbic acid also helps your body absorb and store iron.

Because your body doesn't produce Ascorbic acid, you need to get it from your diet. 
Ascorbic acid is found in citrus fruits, berries, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and spinach. 
Ascorbic acid is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets.
Most people get enough Ascorbic acid from a healthy diet. 

Ascorbic acid deficiency is more likely in people who:

-Smoke or are exposed to secondhand smoking
-Have certain gastrointestinal conditions or certain types of cancer
-Have a limited diet that doesn't regularly include fruits and vegetables
-Severe Ascorbic acid deficiency can lead to a disease called scurvy, which causes anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing.

If you take Ascorbic acid for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.
The recommended daily amount of Ascorbic acid is 90 milligrams for adult men and 75 milligrams for adult women.
Ascorbic Acid belongs to a class of drugs called Vitamins, Water-Soluble.
Ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (including humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis. 
In humans, Ascorbic acid deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy. 
Another biochemical role of Ascorbic acid is to act as an antioxidant (a reducing agent) by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. 
Doing so converts Ascorbic acid to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid. 
These compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms.

In plants, Ascorbic acid is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. 
This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by converting it to water (H2O) and oxygen.
Ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin. 
Ascorbic acid occurs as a white or slightly yellow crystal or powder with a slight acidic taste. 

Ascorbic acid is an antiscorbutic product. On exposure to light, it gradually darkens. 
In the dry state, it is reasonably stable in air, but in solution it rapidly oxidizes. 
Ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) is freely soluble in water; sparingly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, in ether, and in benzene. 
The chemical name of ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) is L-ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid). 
The empirical formula is C6H806, and the molecular weight is 176.13.

Ascorbic Acid (Ascorbic acid) Injection is a sterile solution. 
Each mL contains: Ascorbic Acid (Ascorbic acid) 250 mg and Edetate Disodium 0.025% in Water for Injection qs. 
Prepared with the aid of Sodium Bicarbonate.
Sodium Hydroxide and/or Hydrochloric Acid may have been used to adjust pH.
Ascorbic acid is recommended for the prevention and treatment of scurvy. 
Ascorbic acid's parenteral administration is desirable for patients with an acute deficiency or for those whose absorption of orally ingested ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) is uncertain.

Ascorbic acid is obtained from sodium ascorbate by cation exchange. 
While sodium ascorbate results from reacting methyl-d-sorbosonate (or ketogulonic acid methyl ester) with sodium carbonate. 
Calcium ascorbate is produced by the interaction of ascorbic acid with calcium carbonate in water and ethanol, which Ascorbic acid is then isolated and dried. 
Ascorbic acid is prepared by reaction of ascorbic acid with sulfuric acid followed by esterification with palmitic acid. 
Sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate resulted from the reaction of ascorbic acid (alone or in combination with sodium ascorbate) with calcium hydroxide and sodium trimetaphosphate. 
The previous ascorbic acid derivatives have superior properties in comparison to ascorbic acid as the light resistance, skin irritation. 

Ascorbic acid is widely distributed in all the body tissues. 
Ascorbic acid's level is high in adrenal gland, pituitary gland, and retina. 
Ascorbic acid's level decreases in kidneys and muscles.
Symptoms of mild deficiency may include faulty bone and tooth development, gingivitis, bleeding gums, and loosened teeth. 
Febrile states, chronic illness, and infection (pneumonia, whooping cough, tuberculosis, diphtheria, sinusitis, rheumatic fever, etc.) increase the need for ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) .
Although you might rely on Ascorbic acid only during the winter months, this Ascorbic acidan support your overall health every day. 
Ascorbic acid has many roles in your body and is linked to impressive health benefits, including immune function, collagen formation, and supporting liver detoxification.* 


Ascorbic acid is a well-known anti-oxidant. 
Its effect on free-radical formation when topically applied to the skin by means of a cream has not been clearly established. 
The effectiveness of topical applications has been questioned due to Ascorbic acid’s instability (it reacts with water and degrades). 
Some forms are said to have better stability in water systems. 
Synthetic analogues such as magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are among those considered more effective, as they tend to be more stable. 
When evaluating its ability to fight free-radical damage in light of its synergistic effect with vitamin e, Ascorbic acid shines. 
As vitamin e reacts with a free radical, it, in turn, is damaged by the free radical it is fighting. 
Ascorbic acid comes in to repair the free-radical damage in vitamin e, allowing e to continue with its free-radical scavenging duties. 
Past research has indicated that high concentrations of topically applied Ascorbic acid are photoprotective, and apparently the vitamin preparation used in these studies resisted soap and water, washing, or rubbing for three days. 
More current research has indicated that Ascorbic acid does add protection against uVB damage when combined with uVB sunscreen chemicals. 
This would lead one to conclude that in combination with conventional sunscreen agents, Ascorbic acid may allow for longer-lasting, broader sun protection. 
Again, the synergy between vitamins C and e can yield even better results, as apparently a combination of both provides very good protection from uVB damage. 
However, Ascorbic acid appears to be significantly better than e at protecting against uVA damage. 
A further conclusion is that the combination of vitamins C, e, and sunscreen offers greater protection than the sum of the protection offered by any of the three ingredients acting alone. 
Ascorbic acid also acts as a collagen biosynthesis regulator. 
Ascorbic acid is known to control intercellular colloidal substances such as collagen, and when formulated into the proper vehicles, can have a skin-lightening effect. 
Ascorbic acid is said to be able to help the body fortify against infectious conditions by strengthening the immune system. 
There is some evidence (although debated) that Ascorbic acid can pass through the layers of the skin and promote healing in tissue damaged by burns or injury. 
Ascorbic acid is found, therefore, in burn ointments and creams used for abrasions. 
Ascorbic acid is also popular in anti-aging products. 
Current studies indicate possible anti-inflammatory properties as well.

Because Ascorbic acid is an essential vitamin that the body can’t produce, Ascorbic acid must be consumed in the daily diet or by supplementation.
Thorne’s Ascorbic Acid is the highest dose of Ascorbic acid you can get in any of Thorne’s encapsulated Ascorbic acid products.

 Benefits of Ascorbic Acid (Ascorbic acid):

- Promotes optimal immune function*
- Important in collagen production, which enhances skin, nail, and hair health
-  Supports healthy tissue and cartilage formation, a benefit during wound healing and injury repair
- Plays a role in phase I liver detoxification, plus its antioxidant properties help protect against the toxic effects of heavy metals
-  Helps increase glutathione, a potent antioxidant necessary for supporting phase II liver detoxification
-  The benefits of collagen production, its antioxidant status, and immune support make Ascorbic acid an important nutrient for surgery patients to support wound healing

Ascorbic acid is prepared synthetically or extracted from various vegetable sources in which Ascorbic acid occurs naturally, such as rose hips, blackcurrants, the juice of citrus fruits, and the ripe fruit of Capsicum annuum L. 
A common synthetic procedure involves the hydrogenation of D-glucose to D-sorbitol, followed by oxidation using Acetobacter suboxydans to form L-sorbose. 
A carboxyl group is then added at C1 by air oxidation of the diacetone derivative of Lsorbose and the resulting diacetone-2-keto-L-gulonic acid is converted to L-ascorbic acid by heating with hydrochloric acid.
Ascorbic acid, also known as ascorbic acid, has several important functions.

These include:

-helping to protect cells and keeping them healthy
-maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones and cartilage
-helping with wound healing

Ascorbic acid has a definitive role in treating scurvy, which is a disease caused by Ascorbic acid deficiency. 
Beyond that, a role for Ascorbic acid as prevention or treatment for various diseases is disputed, with reviews reporting conflicting results.
A 2012 Cochrane review reported no effect of Ascorbic acid supplementation on overall mortality. 
Ascorbic acid is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Ascorbic acid is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

Good sources include:

-citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice
-brussels sprouts

Ascorbic acid chemically decomposes under certain conditions, many of which may occur during the cooking of food. 
Ascorbic acid concentrations in various food substances decrease with time in proportion to the temperature at which they are stored. 
Cooking can reduce the Ascorbic acid content of vegetables by around 60%, possibly due to increased enzymatic destruction. 
Longer cooking times may add to this effect.
Another cause of Ascorbic acid loss from food is leaching, which transfers Ascorbic acid to the cooking water, which is decanted and not consumed. 
Broccoli may retain Ascorbic acid during cooking or storage more than most vegetables.
Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store Ascorbic acid. 
You have to get what you need from food, including citrus fruits, broccoli, and tomatoes.

You need Ascorbic acid for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. 
It helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. 
Ascorbic acid is needed for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. 
It also helps the body absorb iron from nonheme sources.
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients. 
Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, substances that damage DNA. 
The build up of free radicals over time may contribute to the aging process and the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.
Ascorbic acid is produced synthetically using the Reichstein process, which has been the standard method of production since the 1930s. 
The process starts with fermentation followed by chemical synthesis. 
The first step involves reduction of D-glucose at high temperature into D-sorbitol. 
D-sorbitol undergoes bacterial fermentation, converting it into L-sorbose. 
L-sorbose is then reacted with acetone in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid to produce diacetone-L-sorbose, which is then oxidized with chlorine and sodium hydroxide to produce di-acetone-ketogulonic acid (DAKS). 
DAKS is then esterified with an acid catalyst and organics to give a gulonic acid methylester. 
The latter is heated and reacted with alcohol to produce crude ascorbic acid, which is then recrystallized to increase its purity. 
Since the development of the Reichstein process more than 70 years ago, Ascorbic acid has undergone many modifications. 
In the 1960s, a method developed in China referred to as the two-stage fermentation process used a second fermentation stage of L-sorbose to produce a different intermediate than DAKS called KGA (2-keto-L-gulonic acid), which was then converted into ascorbic acid. 
The two stage process relies less on hazardous chemicals and requires less energy to convert glucose to ascorbic acid.
Ascorbic acid’s rare to be seriously deficient in Ascorbic acid, although evidence suggests that many people may have low levels of Ascorbic acid. 
Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of Ascorbic acid in the body, so smokers are at a higher risk of deficiency.
Ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) is essential for the maintenance of the ground substance that binds cells together and for the formation and maintenance of collagen.
The exact biochemical role it plays in these functions is not known, but it may be related to its ability to act as an oxidation–reduction system.

Ascorbic acid is used as an antioxidant in aqueous pharmaceutical formulations at a concentration of 0.01–0.1% w/v. 
Ascorbic acid has been used to adjust the pH of solutions for injection, and as an adjunct for oral liquids. 
It is also widely used in foods as an antioxidant. 
Ascorbic acid has also proven useful as a stabilizing agent in mixed micelles containing tetrazepam.
Ascorbic acid is indicated for the treatment and prevention of known or suspect deficiency. 
Although scurvy occurs infrequently, Ascorbic acid is seen in the elderly, infants, alcoholics, and drug users.
Ascorbate can also be used to enhance absorption of dietary nonheme iron or iron supplements. 

Ascorbic acid (but not the sodium salt) was historically used to acidify the urine as a result of excretion of unchanged ascorbic acid, although this use has fallen into disfavor. 
Ascorbic acid is found in fresh fruit and vegetables. 
Ascorbic acid is very water soluble, is readily destroyed by heat, especially in an alkaline medium, and is rapidly oxidized in air. 
Fruit and vegetables that have been stored in air, cut or bruised, washed, or cooked may have lost much of their Ascorbic acid content. 
The deficiency disease associated with a lack of ascorbic acid is called scurvy. Early symptoms include malaise and follicular hyperkeratosis. 
Capillary fragility results in hemorrhages, particularly of the gums. Abnormal bone and tooth development can occur in growing children.
The body’s requirement for Ascorbic acid increases during periods of stress, such as pregnancy and lactation.

Ascorbic acid is an essential part of the human diet, with 40 mg being the recommended daily dose in the UK and 60 mg in the USA. 
However, these figures are controversial, with some advocating doses of 150 or 250mg daily. 
Megadoses of 10 g daily have also been suggested to prevent illness although such large doses are now generally considered to be potentially harmful.
The body can absorb about 500 mg of ascorbic acid daily with any excess immediately excreted by the kidneys. 
Large doses may cause diarrhea or other gastrointestinal disturbances. 
Damage to the teeth has also been reported. However, no adverse effects have been reported at the levels employed as an antioxidant in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. 
The WHO has set an acceptable daily intake of ascorbic acid, potassium ascorbate, and sodium ascorbate, as antioxidants in food, at up to 15 mg/kg bodyweight in addition to that naturally present in food.

Although the information is limited, studies suggest that Ascorbic acid may also be helpful for:

-Boosting immunity
-Maintaining healthy gums
-Improving vision for those with uveitis (an inflammation of the middle part of the eye)
-Treating allergy-related conditions, such as asthma, eczema, and hay fever (called allergic rhinitis)
-Reducing effects of sun exposure, such as sunburn or redness (called erythema)
-Alleviating dry mouth, particularly from antidepressant medications (a common side effect from these drugs)
-Healing burns and wounds
-Decreasing blood sugar in people with diabetes
-Some viral conditions, including mononucleosis -- Although scientific evidence is lacking, some doctors may suggest high-dose Ascorbic acid to treat some viruses

Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair; gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums; rough, dry, scaly skin; decreased wound-healing rate, easy bruising; nosebleeds; and a decreased ability to ward off infection. 
A severe form of Ascorbic acid deficiency is known as scurvy.
Low levels of Ascorbic acid have been associated with a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis, the build up of plaque in blood vessels that can lead to heart attack and stroke. Getting enough Ascorbic acid from your diet by eating lots of fruit and vegetables may help reduce the risk of developing some of these conditions. 
There is no conclusive evidence that taking Ascorbic acid supplements will help or prevent any of these conditions.

Ascorbic acid dietary supplements are available as tablets, capsules, drink mix packets, in multi-vitamin/mineral formulations, in antioxidant formulations, and as crystalline powder. 
Ascorbic acid is also added to some fruit juices and juice drinks. 
Tablet and capsule content ranges from 25 mg to 1500 mg per serving. 
The most commonly used supplement compounds are ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate. 
Ascorbic acid molecules can also be bound to the fatty acid palmitate, creating ascorbyl palmitate, or else incorporated into liposomes.
Ascorbic acid is produced from glucose by two main routes. 
The Reichstein process, developed in the 1930s, uses a single pre-fermentation followed by a purely chemical route. 
The modern two-step fermentation process, originally developed in China in the 1960s, uses additional fermentation to replace part of the later chemical stages. 
The Reichstein process and the modern two-step fermentation processes use sorbitol as the starting material and convert it to sorbose using fermentation. 
The modern two-step fermentation process then converts sorbose to 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (KGA) through another fermentation step, avoiding an extra intermediate. 
Both processes yield approximately 60% Ascorbic acid from the glucose feed.
Ascorbic acid (Ascorbic acid) is used as a dietary supplement when the amount of ascorbic acid in the diet is not enough. 
People most at risk for ascorbic acid deficiency are those with a limited variety of food in their diet, or who have intestinal malabsorption problems from cancer or kidney disease. 
Ascorbic acid is also used to prevent and treat scurvy (a disease that causes fatigue, gum swelling, joint pain, and poor wound healing from a lack of Ascorbic acid in the body). 
Ascorbic acid is in a class of medications called antioxidants. 
Ascorbic acid is needed by the body to help wounds heal, to enhance the absorption of iron from plant foods, and to support the immune system. 
Ascorbic acid works as an antioxidant to protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.


Ascorbic acid 
l-ascorbic acid
 50-81-7; L(+)-Ascorbic acid; ascorbate 
Cevitamic acid 


(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (5R)-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one; 
(R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one 
(R)-3,4-diidrossi-5-((S)- 1,2-diidrossietil)furan-2(5H)-one

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