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CAS NO:9000-01-5
EC NO:232-519-5

E414, also known as gum sudani, acacia gum, Arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum, Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum originally consisting of the hardened sap of two species of the Acacia sensu lato tree, Senegalia senegal and Vachellia seyal. The term "gum arabic" does not legally indicate a particular botanical source, however.
The gum is harvested commercially from wild trees, mostly in Sudan (80%) and throughout the Sahel, from Senegal to Somalia. 
The name "gum Arabic" (al-samgh al-'arabi) was used in the Middle East at least as early as the 9th century. 
E414 first found its way to Europe via Arabic ports, so retained its name.
E414 is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, predominantly polymers of arabinose and galactose. 
E414 is soluble in water, edible, and used primarily in the food industry and soft-drink industry as a stabilizer, with E number E414 (I414 in the US).
E414 is a key ingredient in traditional lithography and is used in printing, paint production, glue, cosmetics, and various industrial applications, including viscosity control in inks and in textile industries, though less expensive materials compete with it for many of these roles.

E414 was defined by the 31st Codex Committee for Food Additives, held at The Hague from 19 to 23 March 1999, as the dried exudate from the trunks and branches of Acacia senegal or Vachellia (Acacia) seyal in the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae).: 4  A 2017 safety re-evaluation by the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) said that although the above definition holds true for most internationally-traded samples, the term "gum arabic" does not indicate a particular botanical source; in a few cases, so‐called "gum arabic" may not even have been collected from Acacia (in the broad sense) species, instead coming from e.g. Combretum or Albizia.

Health benefits
E414 is a rich source of dietary fibers and in addition to its widespread use in food and pharmaceutical industries as a safe thickener, emulsifier, and stabilizer, it also possesses a broad range of health benefits that have been evidently proved through several in vitro and in vivo studies.
E414 is not degraded in the stomach but fermented in the large intestine into a number of short chain fatty acids. 
E414 is regarded as a prebiotic that enhances the growth and proliferation of the beneficial intestinal microbiota and therefore its intake is associated with many useful health effects. These health benefits include:

-Improved absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract
-Anti-obesity (Gum Arabic lowers the body mass index and body fat percentage)
-Lipid lowering potential (Gum arabic decreases total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride)
-Antioxidant activities
-Kidney and liver support
-Immune function via modulating the release of some inflammatory mediators
-Prebiotic improving the intestinal barrier function, preventing colon cancer, and alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel diseases
-In rats, a protective effect on the intestine against the adverse actions of the NSAID drug meloxicam


E414's mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins gives it the properties of a glue and binder that is edible by humans. Other substances have replaced it where toxicity is not an issue, as the proportions of the various chemicals in gum arabic vary widely and make it unpredictable.  For artists, it is the traditional binder in watercolor paint and in photography for gum printing, and it is used as a binder in pyrotechnic compositions. Pharmaceutical drugs and cosmetics also use the gum as a binder, emulsifying agent, and a suspending or viscosity-increasing agent.Wine makers have used gum arabic as a wine fining agent.

E414 is an important ingredient in shoe polish, and can be used in making homemade incense cones.
E414 is also used as a lickable adhesive, for example on postage stamps, envelopes, and cigarette papers. Lithographic printers employ it to keep the non-image areas of the plate receptive to water. This treatment also helps to stop oxidation of aluminium printing plates in the interval between processing of the plate and its use on a printing press.

E414 is used in the food industry as a stabiliser, emulsifier, and thickening agent in icing, fillings, soft candy, chewing gum, and other confectionery,and to bind the sweeteners and flavourings in soft drinks.A solution of sugar and gum arabic in water, gomme syrup, is sometimes used in cocktails to prevent the sugar from crystallising and provide a smooth texture.

E414 is a complex polysaccharide and soluble dietary fibre that is generally recognized as safe for human consumption. An indication of harmless flatulence occurs in some people taking large doses of 30 g (1 oz) or more per day.
E414 is not degraded in the intestine, but fermented in the colon under the influence of microorganisms; it is a prebiotic (as distinct from a probiotic). 

Painting and art
E414 is used as a binder for watercolor painting because it dissolves easily in water. Pigment of any color is suspended within the acacia gum in varying amounts, resulting in watercolor paint. Water acts as a vehicle or a diluent to thin the watercolor paint and helps to transfer the paint to a surface such as paper. When all moisture evaporates, the acacia gum typically does not bind the pigment to the paper surface, but is totally absorbed by deeper layers.

If little water is used, after evaporation, the acacia gum functions as a true binder in a paint film, increasing luminosity and helping prevent the colors from lightening. 
E414 allows more subtle control over washes, because it facilitates the dispersion of the pigment particles. In addition, acacia gum slows evaporation of water, giving slightly longer working time.

The addition of a little gum arabic to watercolor pigment and water allows for easier lifting of pigment from paper, thus can be a useful tool when lifting out color when painting in watercolor.

E414 has a long history as additives to ceramic glazes. 
E414 acts as a binder, helping the glaze adhere to the clay before it is fired, thereby minimising damage by handling during the manufacture of the piece. As a secondary effect, it also acts as a deflocculant, increasing the fluidity of the glaze mixture, but also making it more likely to sediment out into a hard cake if not used for a while.

The historical photography process of gum bichromate photography uses gum arabic mixed with ammonium or potassium dichromate and pigment to create a coloured photographic emulsion that becomes relatively insoluble in water upon exposure to ultraviolet light. In the final print, the acacia gum permanently binds the pigments onto the paper.

E414 is also used to protect and etch an image in lithographic processes, both from traditional stones and aluminum plates. In lithography, gum by itself may be used to etch very light tones, such as those made with a number-five crayon. Phosphoric, nitric, or tannic acid is added in varying concentrations to the acacia gum to etch the darker tones up to dark blacks. The etching process creates a gum adsorb layer within the matrix that attracts water, ensuring that the oil-based ink does not stick to those areas. 
E414 is also essential to what is sometimes called paper lithography, printing from an image created by a laser printer or photocopier.

E414 is also used as a water-soluble binder in fireworks composition.

Fuel charcoal
E414 is used as a binding agent in the making of fuel charcoal. Charcoal made from the taifa plant is powdery, and so in order to form charcoal cakes, E414 is mixed with this powder and allowed to dry. Fuel charcoal made from taifa and gum arabic is used for cooking fires in Senegal and a few other African countries.

Gum arabic or acacia gum, a natural gum usually used as a thickener, emulsifier and binder in food with the European food additive number E414. 
E414 is a dried exudation derived from the stems and branches of acacia trees, commonly come from acacia senegal and acacia seyal.

E414 can be used as an emulsion stabilizer, also it imparts smooth, increases dough height, as well as enlarges the volume of bread.

Egg Substitute
E414 can replace eggs for generating an attractive glossy coating, which will be appropriate for vegetarians and people allergic to eggs.

Frozen dough
E414 reduces ice crystallization in frozen dough.

E414 increases tortilla roll-ability, water retention, and shelf life.

E414 can be used as a glaze or coating in confectionery and the common uses are in chocolates, candies and chewing gum. Generally, the purpose is to prevent sugar crystallization, modify texture, keep the emulsion stable and distribute fatty components evenly. 

E414 can be used in soft drinks due to such advantages: 

-the low viscosity: that will not make a change to the overall viscosity of the beverage.
-excellent solubility in aqueous solution.
-stable in a wide PH range.
-as a stabilizer in oil in water emulsions. 
-strengthen the foam stability in beer and soft drinks. 
-as a fining/clarifying agent in winemaking.
-low calorie.
-as a carrier for flavor encapsulation.

Following foods may contain it:
-Cocoa and Chocolate Confectionary
-Table-top sweeteners 
-Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods 
-Beer and malt beverages

E414 has wide industrial uses as a stabilizer, thickening agent and emulsifier, mainly in the food industry[e.g. in soft drinks syrup, gummy candies and marshmallows], but also in the textile, pottery, lithography, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
In folk medicine, E414 has been reported to be used internally for the treatment of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and externally to cover inflamed surfaces. Some recent reports have claimed that E414 possesses anti-oxidant, nephroprotectant and other effects. Clinically, it has been tried in patients with chronic renal failure, and it was claimed that it helps reduce urea and creatinine plasma concentrations and reduces the need for dialysis from 3 to 2 times per week.

A gum obtained from breaks or wounds in the bark of acacia trees. 
E414 dissolves in hot or cold water forming clear solutions which can be up to 50% gum acacia. The solubility in water increases with temperature. 
E414 is used in confectionary glazes to retard or prevent sugar crystallization and acts as an emulsifier to prevent fat from forming an oxidizable, greasy film. 
E414 functions as a flavor fixative in spray-drying to form a thin film around the flavor particle. 
E414 also functions as an emulsifier in flavor emulsions, as a cloud agent in beverages, and as a form stabilizer. 
E414 is also termed acacia.

As mucilage, excipient for tablets, size, emulsifier, thickener, also in candy, other foods; as colloidal stabilizer. In the manufacture of spray-dried "fixed" flavorsstable, powdered flavors used in packaged dry-mix products (puddings, desserts, cake mixes) where flavor stability and long shelf life are important.

E414 is commonly used in traditional remedies as a soothing and anti-inflammatory agent. 
E414 is also used as a vegetable gum for product thickening. In extract form, acacia is recommended for dry, sensitive, or delicate skin. Acacia is the dried gummy sap from the stems and branches of various species of the African acacia tree. 

Appearance (Colour):    White to off-white yellowish
Appearance (Form):    Powder
Solubility (Colour) 10% aq. solution:    Viscous brown
Ash:    max. 4%
Acid insoluble ash:    max. 1%
Loss on drying:    max. 15%
Starch & Dextrin:    Passes test
Glucose & Fructose:    Passes test

E414 is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. 
E414 was historically the source of the sugars arabinose and ribose, both of which were first discovered and isolated from it, and are named after it.

E414 is used primarily in the food industry as a stabilizer. 
It is edible and has E number E414. 
E414 is a key ingredient in traditional lithography and is used in printing, paint production, glue, cosmetics and various industrial applications, including viscosity control in inks and in textile industries, although less expensive materials compete with it for many of these roles.

E414 is used in textiles, ceramics, lithography, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the food industry, acacia is mainly used as confectionery, bakery, dairy, drink, and as a microencapsulating agent.

Physical and Chemical Properties    
Chemical properties light white to light yellowish brown translucent block, or white to orange brown granular or powder. Odorless, tasteless. In water, it can be gradually dissolved into an acidic viscous liquid with a solubility of about 50%(W/V) and insoluble in ethanol. Form a stable coacerin with gelatin or albumin. Use acidic alcohol to precipitate it to obtain free arabic acid.

Used as biochemical reagents, colloidal stabilizers, emulsifiers and adhesives

E414 is also called Arabic gum, acacia gum, yaxi gum, Senegalese gum and peach gum. Exudate solidification collected on arabic trunks of the genus Acacia. 

E414s application time has been 4000 years, because it is safe and non-toxic, the dosage is not specified, it is yellow to light yellowish brown translucent block, or white to light yellow particles and powder. 
The lighter the color, the better the quality, the fresh appearance is smooth, the interior is transparent, odorless, tasteless, easily soluble in water, can be dissolved in a large amount of hot water and cold water, forming a clear and sticky thick liquid. 
The application in food depends on its protective and stabilizing effect on colloids, its stickiness and thickening, and its own low digestibility in low calorific value food formulas. 

E414 is used in candy making to prevent candy recrystallization and thickening. In candy, fat can also be evenly distributed in the whole, preventing the formation of easily oxidized multi-fat surface layer. 
In beef dairy products, a large amount of water can be combined and maintained in the form of hydration. In bread snacks, the surface of the bread can be filled with a smooth feeling. Transparent brighteners, sugar coating and snacks can be made to make the sugar coating stable and have the characteristics of free flow and adhesion to the surface of the bread. 
E414 can also be used as fragrance preserving agent, beverage emulsifier and foam stabilizer of beer.

-E414 is widely used in the food industry. In the candy can be used as crystallization prevention agent and emulsifier; 
-In the milk can be used as a stabilizer; 
-In the food flavor can be used as a flavor aid; 
-In the emulsion flavor, gum arabic mixed with other gums, it can provide a good soft feeling; 
-E414 can be used as an excipient and a fragrance promoter in the powder flavor, and can form a protective film around the flavor particles, prevent oxidation, evaporation and have a moisturizing effect. In pharmaceutical production, gum 
-E414 can be used as an emulsifier, a suspending agent, a binder, a sustained-release material, and a Microcapsule film material for production of emulsions, suspensions, tablets, granules, capsules, microcapsules, and the like.

Commonly called gum arabic, or acacia gum, acacia is produced using resin from two species of acacia tree: acacia senegal and acacia seyal. 
E414s primarily harvested from wild trees in the Sudan, Senegal, and Somalia, though historically acacia was cultivated throughout the Arabian Peninsula and the western edges of Asia. 

E414 is a complex composition of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. The sugars arabinose and ribose are both derived from acacia, first discovered and isolated from acacia gum, and of course named after its primary historical source region. 
The primary use of acacia is within the food industry, where it is used as a stabilizer in everything from soft drink syrups to candy, marshmallows, and even edible glitter. 
In addition to being edible, E414 is also an integral ingredient in traditional lithography, printing, paint manufacturing, glue, cosmetics, and various industrial uses such as viscosity control in both ink and textile manufacturing.

1. Used as emulsifying stabilizer and thickening agent, it can be used for beverages, ice cream, chocolate and jam according to China's regulations, with the maximum usage of 5.0g/kg.
2.Used as biochemical reagents, colloidal stabilizers, emulsifiers and adhesives
3.Used as Thickener; Stabilizing agent; Emulsifier; The coating agent.

E414, also known as gum arabic, is a natural, safe and plant-based additive or ingredient. 
E414 comes from an exudation of Acacia trees after the incision of their stems and branches. 
E414 has been used for centuries and provides many different functional properties such as emulsifying properties or fiber enrichment. 
E414 is nowadays found in a wide variety of consumer products all over the world.

E414 has been used in pharmaceuticals as a demulcent. 
E414 is used topically for healing wounds and inhibits the growth of periodontic bacteria and the early deposition of plaque.

E414 or gum arabic is a food grade, naturally-derived gum used for its emulsifying and high-gloss properties. In baking, it:

Acts as a stabilizer
Has many clean-label attributes
Is calorie-free, grown without pesticides, and both kosher and halal

E414 is a white powder.
E414 is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.

IUPAC names
Acacia Senegal Gum
acaciadealbata gum
Gum arabic
gum arabic

Acacia, Total ash <4%
Acacia Gum (Gum Arabic)
Gum Arabic (Gum Acacia)
Gum Arabic, powder(Acacia)
Acacia gum, Acaciae gummi
Gum arabic from acacia tree, Gum arabic
Acacia, Total ash <
Gumacabic powder
GuM arabic, powder 250GR
Acacia NF
Gum arabic from acacia tree Vetec(TM) reagent grade
Acacia gum, total ash <4%
Gum acacia Arabic gum
Acacia gum, for analysis
ArabMa gum powder
Arabia gum powder
runus persica
Gum Arabic Food Grade
cacia senegal、Acacia seyal
FEMA 2001
Acacia,powder;Gum arabic,powder
Gum acacia powder
ACACIA GUAR GR ( Gum Acacia Powder)
gum arabic from acacia tree


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