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E435 (Polysorbate 60)

CAS No: 9005-67-8

E435 (Polysorbate 60) or Tween 60, the full name polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate, is an ingredient made from sorbitol, stearic acid (C18) and ethylene oxide. It is primarily used as an emulsifier in food (the European food additive number E435) and a solubilizer & surfactant in cosmetics.

PEG-60 Sorbitan stearate; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; POLYOXYETHYLENE SORBITAN MONOSTEARATE; CHEBI:53425; PEG-3 Sorbitan stearate; PEG-40 Sorbitan stearate; PEG-6 Sorbitan stearate; PEG-60 Sorbitan stearate; Polyethylene glycol (3) sorbitan monostearate; Polyethylene glycol 2000 sorbitan stearate; Polyethylene glycol 300 sorbitan monostearate; Polyethylene glycol 3000 sorbitan monostearate; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; Polyoxyethylene (3) sorbitan monostearate; Polyoxyethylene (4) sorbitan monostearate; Polyoxyethylene (40) sorbitan stearate; Polyoxyethylene (6) sorbitan monostearate; Polyoxyethylene (60) sorbitan monostearate; E435 (Polysorbate 60); Polysorbate 61; Sorbimacrogol stearate 300; Sorbitan, monooctadecanoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.; Glycosperse S-20; PEG sorbitan stearate; PEG-20 sorbitan stearate; Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monostearate; Polyoxyethylene-40-sorbitan monostearate; Sorbitan monostearate, ethoxylated; Sorbitan, monooctadecanoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.; Sorbitan, monostearate, polyoxyethylene derivs.; E435 (Polysorbate 60); DSSTox_CID_9300; Sorbomacrogol stearate 300; DSSTox_RID_78755; DSSTox_GSID_29300; POE(20) sorbitan monostearate; CHEMBL3184465; Tox21_200064; NCGC00248512-01; NCGC00257618-01; E435; CAS-9005-67-8; (2R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S)-3,4-bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)oxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl dodecanoate

Like other polysorbates, the number 60 after polysorbate means the type of fatty acid, here is monostearate; the number 20 following polyoxyethylene indicates the total number of oxyethylene groups in the molecule structure.
How is it made?
According to the FDA, E435 (Polysorbate 60) is manufactured by reacting stearic acid with sorbitol to obtain sorbitan monostearate first and then condensed with ethylene oxide.

What is it made of?
As the commercial food grade stearic acid usually contains palmitic acid, so E435 (Polysorbate 60) is a mixture of ethoxylated ethers of stearic and palmitic acid esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides and other related compounds. 

    Hydrophilic groups: long polyoxyethylene groups
    Lipophilic group: stearic acid
Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB)
14.9, gives oil-in-water emulsions, O/W.
It is more lipophilic than polysorbate 20 and 40 due to the long length of the fatty acids – stearic acid, compared with other fatty acids, lauric acid (C14) and palmitic acid (C16) that linked to the polyoxyethylene sorbitan part of the molecule, respectively.

    Soluble in water, insoluble in mineral oil and vegetable oils.
    Soluble in ethyl acetate and toluene. 
What’re the Uses of E435 (Polysorbate 60)?
E435 (Polysorbate 60) is a synthetic multi-ingredient that can be used as a surfactant, emulsifier, solubilizer, stabilizer in food, cosmetics and personal care products.

E435 (Polysorbate 60) helps water-based and oil-based ingredients blend easily and prevent their separation in food. E435 (Polysorbate 60) and 80 are mostly used in food among the category of polysorbates, but the latter is used more than 60 in food. 
As a high HLB emulsifier, its food grade can be blended with a low HLB emulsifier (e.g. sorbitan stearate, mono and diglycerides) to provide a suitable HLB value for the various food uses, either oil in water, or water in oil emulsion.

Its general purpose in cosmetics is to mix water and oil together. E435 (Polysorbate 60) functions as a surfactant, emulsifier, solubilizer and dispersing agent.
Some of its applications as follows:
    Help wash away body dirties by lowering the surface tension on the skin when used in shampoos and body washes.
    Distribute essential oils, fragrances and colorants evenly in water.

Following cosmetic products may with it:
    Lotions
    Creams
    Hair products
    Skin care products 
    Makeup products
Is E435 (Polysorbate 60) Safe to Eat?
Yes, it has been approved as a safe ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 

E435 (Polysorbate 60) may be safely used in food with multifunctions, such as an emulsifier, foaming agent, dough conditioner, dispersing agent, and surfactant & wetting agent.
The following food may contain it and the maximum usage (3):
    Whipped edible oil topping 0.4%
    Shortenings and edible oils 1%
    Ice cream 0.1%
    Dressings 0.3%
    Cakes and cake mixes, icings and fillings 0.46%
    Sugar confection coatings 0.2% 
    Vegetable fat-water emulsions 0.4%
    Yeast-leavened bakery products 0.5% 

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (E435) is listed in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as an authorised food additive and categorized in “Additives other than colours and sweeteners” (4).
Polysorbate 65, the full name polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate. There are three stearic acids in its molecule structure while E435 (Polysorbate 60) only has one.

It is not natural as it is made from chemical synthesis between sorbitan fatty acid with ethylene oxide.

E435 (Polysorbate 60) would be halal if the fatty acid stearic acid is sourced from vegetable oils. 

It is vegan if the fatty acid stearic acid derived from vegetable oils which are suitable for vegetarians. Stearic acid used to synthesize E435 (Polysorbate 60) may also come from animal sources.

Now you may have a knowledge of the emulsifier – E435 (Polysorbate 60) (E435), from the following aspects:
    Production process
    Uses
    Safety
    Side effects
    FAQs: compare with polysorbate 65 and 80
I’m probably forgetting some information about E435 (Polysorbate 60), and if you have any questions or remarks about this additive, feel free to let me know in the comments.

Produces stable O/W emulsions, especially when combined with Span 60 and cetostearyl alcohol or other fatty alcohols. Excellent for the emulsification of esters, minerals and silicone oils. Vegetable-derived.

Croda considers the RSPO’s Mass Balance system to be an important progressive step in supporting the palm oil physical supply chain and creating momentum towards segregated sustainable Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil material. To that end, sampling will be of the sustainable palm variant, SP E435 (Polysorbate 60) MBAL.

    Dispersing Agents
    Emulsifiers
    Surfactants / Detergents
Regional Availability
    Asia
    Europe
    Latin America
    N America
    Bath, Shower & Soaps
    After Sun
    Eye Contour Care
    Face / Neck Skin Care
    Facial Cleansers
    Hair Conditioners - Rinse off
    Shaving / Hair Removal
    Styling
    Sun Protection
    Tanning
Consumer benefit
    Hydrating / Moisturising / Nourishing
    Calming / Soothing / Redness
Certifications and Standards
    IECIC
    Halal


Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in pharmaceuticals and food preparation. They are often used in cosmetics to solubilise essential oils and fragrance oils into water-based products.

This substance is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use and indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters).
Widespread uses by professional workers
This substance is used in the following products: laboratory chemicals. This substance is used in the following areas: scientific research and development. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use as processing aid and indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters).

Formulation or re-packing
This substance is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures and formulation in materials.

Uses at industrial sites
This substance is used in the following products: lubricants and greases and pharmaceuticals.
This substance is used in the following areas: mining and health services.
This substance is used for the manufacture of: pulp, paper and paper products and textile, leather or fur.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, in the production of articles and as processing aid.

Used as a flavoring agent, emulsifier, boiler water additive, surface-active agent, and stabilizer or thickener for foods; [FDA] Used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, as a lubricant and finish emulsifier for textile and leather manufacture, laboratory reagent, and flavoring; Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products

Tanners may be exposed to chromium, sulfuric acid, leather dust, and H2S. Tanning uses either vegetable or chromium (III) solutions. In the past, tanning was done with the more toxic chromium (VI). [ILO Encyclo: Tanning and Leather Finishing] Other potential exposures include: nitrosamines, chromate pigments, benzidine-based dyes, formaldehyde, and aromatic organic solvents. [Stern, FB. Mortality of chrome leather tannery workers and chemical exposures in tanneries. [Scand J Work Environ Health. 1987 Apr;13(2):108-17] Calcium oxide is a dehairing agent. Hydrogen sulfide can evolve if acid reacts with sodium sulfide, also used for dehairing. Ammonia is generated from ammonium buffering salts and protein putrefaction. Various biocides are used. Leather tanning and processing is not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans. [IARC] Leather production includes hide preparation, tanning, and finishing. Preparation chemicals include DDT, zinc chloride, formaldehyde, mineral oils, arsenious anhydride, and phenols. Tanning chemicals include calcium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, sulfuric acid, formic acid, hydrogen sulfide, aniline-based dyes, and solvents (dichloromethane, benzene, ethanol, tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene). Finishing chemicals include formaldehyde, aniline, nitrocellulose, and resins.The three Swedish plants studied opened in 1860, 1897, and 1906 and closed in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Potential carcinogens were used: chromium, chlorophenols, aniline dyes, formaldehyde, methyl mercury, arsenic, benzene, and chlorinated solvents. Arsenic sulfides were used until 1950, methyl mercury (fungicide) until 1960, chlorophenols (fungicide) until 1980, and benzidine dyes until 1980. Toluene was contaminated with benzene until the 1960s.[PMID 15961622] The three steps in leather processing are: 1. "Preparation of hides (curing, soaking and hair removal liming) and pre-tanning stage (bating and pickling) in a special shed (called beam house)." 2. "Tanning stage (tanning, sammying and shaving)." 3. "Post-tanning or finishing stage (drying, fat liquoring and finishing).] See the agent "Leather dust."

Also, Textile operations include fiber synthesis, weaving, manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing
It is a sorbitan monostearate that has been ethoxylated with approximately 20 moles of ethylene oxide to give a water soluble, oil and water emulsifier. This product is one of a group of ethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters, which are often referred to as Polysorbates. This surfactant is a mixture of partial esters of sorbitol and its anhydrides made from fatty acids, primarily stearic, which is then reacted with ethylene oxide to make it hydrophilic in nature. This product is designated with a “K” which means it has Kosher U Certification.
It can be used as a solubilizer and emulsifier of oils and fragrances, wetting agent, viscosity modifier, anti-stat, stabilizer or dispersing agent. Surfactants can also be used in the food, textile, and metalworking industries. Food applications include whipped vegetable toppings,shortening and edible oils, cakes and cake fillings, sugar type confectioner coatings, emulsifiers in nonstandardized dressings, coffee whiteners, nonalcoholic mixes, dough conditioners, oil and wax coatings for raw fruits and vegetables,gelatin desserts, chocolate flavored syrups, natural and artificial flavorings and process defoamers.

Chemical Properties
E435 (Polysorbate 60) has a faint, characteristic odor and a warm, somewhat bitter taste. It is a mixture of stearate and palmitate partial esters of sorbitol and sorbitol anhydrides condensed with approximately 20 mole of ethylene oxide (C2H4O) for each mole of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides.

E435 (Polysorbate 60) is an emulsifier manufactured by reacting stearic acid with sorbitol to yield a product which is reacted with ethylene oxide. It is a nonionic, waterdispersible surface-active agent which is very hydrophilic. It is also termed E435 (Polysorbate 60). It is used in whipped vegetable toppings for overrun and lightness; in cakes for increased volume and fine grain; in icings and confectionery for lightness and syneresis control; and in salad dressing for emulsion stability. It is frequently used with sorbitan monostearate or monoand diglycerides. The typical usage range is 0.10–0.40%.
E435 (Polysorbate 60) is used as an emulsifier for plastic & polymers, personal care and industrial applications.
E435 (Polysorbate 60) is used as an emulsifier. Suggested applications: cakes, shortenings, milk substitute, chocolate flavored syrup. 
azalide antibiotic

ChEBI: A polymer composed of PEG-ylated sorbitan, where the total number of poly(ethylene glycol) units is 20 (w + x + y + z = 20) and a single terminal is capped by a stearate group.


Sorbitan monostearate, ethoxylated

Sorbitan monostearate, ethoxylated

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