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E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) (PGPR)=ricinoleic acid, ester with polyglycerol

CAS NUMBER:29894-35-7
EC NUMBER:608-428-5
Molecular Weight:390.6
Molecular Formula:C21H42O6

DEFINITION OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate):
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) (PGPR), is an emulsifier made from glycerol and fatty acids (usually from castor bean, but also from soybean oil).
In chocolate, compound chocolate and similar coatings, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)is mainly used with another substance like lecithin to reduce viscosity. 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is used at low levels (below 0.5%), and works by decreasing the friction between the solid particles (e.g. cacao, sugar, milk) in molten chocolate, reducing the yield stress so that it flows more easily.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) can also be used as an emulsifier in spreads and in salad dressings, or to improve the texture of baked goods.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is an emulsifier made in a three-step process from glycerol and fatty acids.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is made up of a short chain of glycerol molecules connected by ether bonds, with ricinoleic acid side chains connected by ester bonds.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is also used in food as a release agent.

USES/BENEFITS OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate):
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is a W/O type surfactant, which can be used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener, and anticaking agent. 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is widely used in the fields of food and cosmetics.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)is a special emulsifier that can stabilize water-in-oil systems with high water content.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) adjusts the surface tension. 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) adjusts product viscosity.
Its lipophilic group is polycondensed ricinoleic acid, and its hydrophilic group is polyglycerin group.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) has good solubility in grease.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is widely used in food (chocolate and its products, ice cream icing, etc.), cosmetics, lubricants and other fields.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)serves to produce better quality chocolate reducing cocoa oil quantity in chocolate industry.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) provides easier discharge property eliminating bubble formation and empty holes.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) serves to produce chocolate with desired refirement.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) doesnt have any bad odour. 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) has a good thermal stability. 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is suitable to use together with lecithin. 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) makes the process easier. 

1. Its most important feature is that it can reduce the viscosity of the chocolate slurry without forming crystals, thereby improving its fluidity.
2. E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) has a good synergistic effect when mixed with lecithin, which can significantly reduce the shear stress of chocolate, reduce the amount of cocoa butter and cocoa butter substitutes, and reduce the thickness of the chocolate coating and the ease of processing.
3. E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) makes chocolate and its products easy to discharge the small bubbles generated in the process of filling the mold, and avoid the phenomenon of voids and pores in the product.

4. E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) reduces the amount of chocolate required for effective slurrying and molding; speeds up the injection molding of chocolate.
5. E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) improves the ease of processing of the product, makes the chocolate icing of the biscuit evenly thick, and the icing thinner and flatter, so that the wrapped air can be released more easily.

6. In a humid environment, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) increases the low-temperature adhesion of the chocolate coating, so that the chocolate icing of the ice cream can be formed quickly, accelerate its adhesion, increase the adhesion, and reduce the tiny pores.

For example: adding 0.3% E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) and 0.3% lecithin to chocolate, the shear stress can be reduced by about 50%, or use 0.2% E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) and 0.5% lecithin together, can reduce the amount of cocoa butter by about 8%, reduces the thickness of the chocolate coating, and improves the ease of processing.
7. A thicker and heavier chocolate coating is formed on the biscuit.

APPLICATIONS OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate):
· Chocolate and products thereof
· Low oil content products
· Spreadable oils (oil rate is less than 41%)
· Cocoa based candies
· Spreadable products (oil rate is less than 10%)
· Sauces
· Ice cream mixtures
· Candies
· Drug and cosmetic mixtures
· Oil and water emulsions

Usage in chocolate
Because E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) improves the flow characteristics of chocolate and compound chocolate, especially near the melting point, it can improve the efficiency of chocolate coating processes:
- chocolate coatings with E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) flow better around shapes of enrobed and dipped products.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) also improves the performance of equipment used to produce solid molded products:
- the chocolate flows better into the mold, and surrounds inclusions and releases trapped air more easily.
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) can also be used to reduce the quantity of cocoa butter needed in chocolate formulations: 
-the solid particles in chocolate are suspended in the cocoa butter, and by reducing the viscosity of the chocolate, less cocoa butter is required, which saves costs, because cocoa butter is an expensive ingredient, and also leads to a lower-fat product.

In manufacturing chocolates for applications such as baking, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) (PGPR) works in enhancing the thickness and volume of the product.
Chocolate coatings flow satisfactorily when E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is added unto its mixture. It also complements lecithin when combined.
Factories find E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) as a helpful agent in maintaining the good quality of the chocolate or other products that require certain smoothness and viscosity. 

MANUFACTURE OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate):
Glycerol is heated to above 200 °C in a reactor in the presence of an alkaline catalyst to create polyglycerol. 
Castor oil fatty acids are separately heated to above 200 °C, to create interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids. 
The polyglycerol and the interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids are then mixed to create PGPR.

The FDA has deemed E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) to be generally recognized as safe for human consumption, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also deemed it safe.
Both of these organisations set the acceptable daily intake at 7.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
In Europe, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is allowed in chocolate up to a level of 0.5%.
In a 1998 review funded by Unilever of safety evaluations from the late 1950s and early 1960s, "E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) was found to be 98% digested by rats and utilized as a source of energy superior to starch and nearly equivalent to peanut oil."
Additionally, no evidence was found of interference with normal fat metabolism, nor with growth, reproduction, and maintenance of tissue.
Overall, it did not "constitute a human health hazard".
A study published in the European Food Safety Authority in 2017 re-evaluated the safety of the additive and recommended to revise the acceptable daily intake and increase it to 25 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

 E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is a non-hazardous chemical product and is transported in accordance with routine. 
 Sealed and stored in a low-temperature, dry, cool and ventilated place, protected from rain, sun, and pollution.
 Mixed storage and transportation with flammable, explosive, toxic and harmful substances is strictly prohibited.

CATEGORY OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate):food additive

PROPERTIES OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) 
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is non-ionic and belongs to water-in-oil (W/O) emulsifier.
Apperance:Yellow highly viscous liquid,
odor: odorless or slightly peculiar smell,
solubility: insoluble in cold water and ethanol, soluble in hot glycerin and hot oil, soluble in ether and hydrocarbons.
SYNONYMS OF E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)
9-Octadecenoic acid, 12-hydroxy-, (9Z,12R)-, polymer with 1,2,3-propanetriol
9-Octadecenoic acid, 12-hydroxy-, [R-(Z)]-, polymer with 1,2,3-propanetriol
1,2,3-Propanetriol, polymer with [R-(Z)]-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid
1,2,3-Propanetriol, polymer with (9Z,12R)-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid
Grindsted E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)90
Quest PGPR
Polymuls PGPR
Hexalyn PR 15
E 476
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)90
Sugin 476M
Sunsoft AZ 14EG
Admul 1408K
Admul WOL 1408K
Nikkol Decaglyn PR 20
Palsgaard 4125
Palsgaard 0450
Cithrol PG 3PR
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)4125
Palsgaard E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)4125
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)4175
Condensed castor oil esters 
glycerin fatty acids
condensed castor oil fatty acid glycerol esters

*QUESTIONS ABOUT E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)

How is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) made?
E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)is a mixture of esterified products manufactured by the esterification of polyglycerol with condensed castor oil fatty acids. 
The brief 3 step manufacturing processes as follows:
1. Polyglycerols preparation: Glycerol is heated to above 200 ℃ in the presence of an alkali catalyst to produce polyglycerol. 
2. Condensation of the castor oil fatty acids: Castor oil fatty acids (synthesized by hydrolysing castor oil in water) are heated to above 200 ℃ to create interesterified ricinoleic fatty acid chains of varying lengths. 
3. Esterification: Then polyglycerol mixed with interesterified ricinoleic fatty acids to produce E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)with different chain lengths. 

What’re the common food uses?
   The common applications of E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)are as an emulsifier in chocolates. 
   E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) also can be used in confectionery fillings to reduce fat and improve the flow properties, and in low-fat spreads to stabilize the emulsion and improve mouthfeel and spreadability.

What is this ingredient in chocolate?
   It is common to see E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) in the ingredients list of the chocolate candy which you might find in the supermarket. 
   Let’s see its functions in chocolate. 
1. Viscosity reduction agent
   E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)has good thermal stability. The most important advantage in chocolate manufacturing is its ability in preventing crystals occur by reducing the viscosity of the chocolate slurry, thereby improving its fluidity, accelerating and optimizing the chocolate moulding process. 
2. Eliminating bubble formation and empty holes
   E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)also help release small bubbles generated during the moulding process, thereby avoiding bubbles and holes in the chocolate product. 
3. Synergistic with lecithin
   It has a good synergistic effect when used together with lecithin (an emulsifier, E322).
4. Reduction of cocoa butter 
   It can significantly reduce the shear stress and the amount of cocoa butter needed (to reduce the cost for chocolate manufacturers) in chocolate formulations, along with the reduction of the thickness of the chocolate coating, and improve the ease of processing.

What other food may contain E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)?
  The following products may with it :
  -Spreadable fats 
  -Cocoa products 
  -Cocoa-based confectionery 
  -Emulsified sauces

Is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)safe to eat?
Yes, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)has been approved as a safe emulsifier by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

Is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)Natural?
No, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)is not natural as mentioned above, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is made from the reaction of glycerol and fatty acids. 

Is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)Halal?
Yes, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is halal and comply with the diet policy of Muslims and we can find some China manufacturers certificated with MUI halal.

Is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)Kosher?
Yes, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is kosher pareve.
E476 has met all the “kashruth” requirements and has been certified as kosher. 

Is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)Gluten free?
Yes, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is gluten free and comply with the FDA’s definition of gluten free, that it does not contain wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these grains. 
And E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is generally considered safe for people with celiac disease.  

Is E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate)Vegan?
Yes, E476 (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate) is vegan as it derived from vegetable sources of glycerol and castor oil,which is  the manufacturing process without the use of animal matter or products derived from animal origin.
However, glycerol can also be sourced from animal fats & oils, so vegetarians should avoid this derivation.

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