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E927a (Azodicarbonamide)

Azodicarbonamide = ADA = E927a

CAS Number: 123.77.3
EC Number: 204.650.8
E number: E927a (glazing agents, ...)

Azodicarbonamide, or azobisformamide, is a chemical compound being used as a food additive to bleach and increase the shelf life of breads, among other uses. 
The "yoga mat" chemical officially known azodicarbonamide hit the headlines last week when Subway announced they were dropping the ingredient from their sandwiches. 
But chances are, you're still eating Azodicarbonamide . the chemical is in close to 500 foods still on the market . and in your kitchen . according to a report issued today by the Environmental Working Group.
Bread, bagels, pastries, pizza, tortillas, hamburger and hot dog buns often contain azodicarbonamide, which is used to bleach flour, and to make dough more elastic.

Azodicarbonamide (ADC) is an odorless yellow, orange color chemical widely used as a blowing agent, foaming agent and also as a food additive in baking. 
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) (ADC) is also called as ‘yoga – mat’ chemical due to Azodicarbonamides primary use in rubber and a plastic product like a flip flop or yoga mat. 
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) provides softness and elasticity, considering this property Azodicarbonamide is used in the food industry for several years. 
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) (ADC) is abundantly practiced by commercial bakers as a whitening agent and conditioner for bread dough. 
This crystalline solid is poorly soluble in water, but when water temperature is raised Azodicarbonamide become marginally soluble, Azodicarbonamide devours thermally unstable property and hence while baking, Azodicarbonamide break down to form other chemicals, one of which is Semicarbazide (SEM). 
Azodicarbonamide is used as a blowing agent in plastics. 

As a blowing agent, E927a (Azodicarbonamide) allows for plastic polymers to flow more freely. 
With the addition of azodicarbonamide into plastics, Azodicarbonamide allows for bubbles to be form allowing for the polymer to become a foam material. 
As a food additive, Azodicarbonamide serves as a flour bleaching agent and an improving agent.
Azodicarbonamide, when heated, releases gassy bubbles like nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc. 
So, adding Azodicarbonamide to vinyl helps to make nice springy foam rubber mats.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) was first described by John Bryden in 1959.

Azodicarbonamide is employed as an organic chemical blowing agent for the manufacturing of polymer foam, which is used in rubber compounds, polymer melts, and PVC plastisols. 
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is also used as a blowing agent in foamed rubber and plastics products for instance in products such as yoga mats, window gaskets, floor mats, toys, and shoe soles. 
Azodicarbonamide is widely used as a dough conditioner and as a flour bleaching agent, as Azodicarbonamide hastens the speed of processing, improves the bread texture, and makes the bread appear whiter and larger than its normal appearance.

Azodicarbonamide is used to bleach and “improve” flour.  
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is banned in Europe but allowed in Canada and the U.S. Freshly milled flour has a yellowish colour. 
When stored for several months, the flour oxidizes.  
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) becomes whiter and the baking qualities improve. 

Pure azodicarbonamide generally reacts around 200 °C. 
In the plastic, leather, and other industries, modified azodicarbonamide (average decomposition temperature 170 °C) contains additives that accelerate the reaction or react at lower temperatures.
An example of the use of azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent is found in the manufacture of vinyl (PVC) and EVA.PE foams, where Azodicarbonamide forms bubbles upon breaking down into gas at high temperature. 
Vinyl foam is springy and does not slip on smooth surfaces.
Azodicarbonamide is useful for carpet underlay and floor mats. 
Commercial yoga mats made of vinyl foam have been available since the 1980s; the first mats were cut from carpet underlay.

Demand for azodicarbonamide is estimated to increase in plastic and rubber industries by 2027. 
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is used in most of the conventional plastics manufacturing processes such as extrusion, injection molding, calendering, coatings, slush, and rotational molding. 
Foamed plastics usage lead improve electrical and thermal insulation improve strength to weight ratio, eliminate sink marks in injection.molded parts and reduce material costs. 
Demand for foamed plastics is anticipated to increase in the next few years. 
Azodicarbonamide, is anticipated propel its use of azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent. 
Demand for azodicarbonamide is expected to increase in the rubber industry for producing products such as glass jars rubber seals, shoes, and gymnasium products during the forecast period.

E927a (Azodicarbonamide) as Food additive
As a food additive, azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner.
Azodicarbonamide reacts with moist flour as an oxidizing agent.
The main reaction product is biurea, which is stable during baking.
Secondary reaction products include semicarbazide and ethyl carbamate.

Azodicarbonamide is known by the E number E927.
Many restaurants in the US fast food industry removed the additive in response to negative publicity.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is used as a foaming agent in the production some plastic products.  
Azodicarbonamide’s use in yoga mats has received a lot of publicity.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is also used in the rubber that forms seals on glass jars.  

In this case, there has been concern that it could break down and contaminate the food stored in the jars.  
The World Health Organization has called for data related to the possible health issues.  
They are particularly concerned about baby food.  
This is because babies eat most of their food from jars.

Why is E927a (Azodicarbonamide) (ADA) called the "yoga mat" chemical? 
Because Azodicarbonamides primary use is in plastic and rubber products like yoga mats and flip flops, where Azodicarbonamide's used to make them softer and more stretchy. 
According to the scientists at the EWG, azodicarbonamide functions "like champagne for plastics," aerating plastic with tiny bubbles to make Azodicarbonamide lighter, spongier, and more flexible.

CAS Number: 123.77.3  
ChEMBL: 28517  
ChemSpider: 4575589  
ECHA InfoCard: 100.004.229  
EC Number: 204.650.8
E number: E927a (Azodicarbonamide) (glazing agents, ...)
PubChem CID: 31269
UNII: 56Z28B9C8O  
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID0024553

E927a (Azodicarbonamide) uses and applications include: 
.Blowing agent for plastics, wire coatings, foamed polyolefins for trimming, upholstery, insulation, sealing, sound deadening in construction, linings, protective padding, flotation devices, sport shoes, protective packaging
.flour treatment agent
.bleaching agent in cereal flour
.maturing agent for flour
.chemical foaming agent for ABS, acetal, acrylic, EVA, HDPE, LDPE, PPO, PP, PS, HIPS, flexible PVC, TPE
.blowing agent in food.contact rubber articles for repeated use
.blowing agent in food.contact foamed plastics
.in closure.sealing gaskets for food containers.

Chemical formula: C2H4N4O2
Molar mass: 116.080 g·mol−1
Appearance: Yellow to orange/red crystalline powder
Melting point: 225 °C (437 °F; 498 K) (decomposes)

E Number
The E number of Azodicarbonamide is 927.

Azodicarbonamide, or azo(bis)formamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4.
Azodicarbonamide is a yellow to orange red, odorless, crystalline powder.
As a food additive Azodicarbonamide is known as E927 and used as a bleaching agent  in packaged, processed foods like frozen dinners, pasta and flour mixes in baked goods.
The principal use of E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is in the production of foamed plastics as a blowing agent.

IUPAC name
Other names
Azodicarboxamide; Azobisformamide; C,C'.Azodi(formamide); Diazenedicarboxamide

What is Azodicarbonamide (ADA)?
Azodicarbonamide is an ingredient used as a whitening agent in cereal flour and as a dough conditioner in bread baking, approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is a compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4. 

ADA is:
.yellow to orange red
.crystalline powder

Azodicarbonamide is introduced as a flour maturing agent by Wallace and Tiernan, Inc. and Azodicarbonamide was approved for use in 1962.

Commercial Production
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is manufactured by reacting dihydrazine sulfate and urea under higher pressure and high temperature. 
The resulting product is combined with sodium chlorate and oxidized, then centrifuged. 
Azodicarbonamide is extracted from the resulting slurry, washed, and drained. 

Bleaching agent: E927a (Azodicarbonamide) makes the bread whiter by reacting with cartonene in the flour.

Pure azodicarbonamide powder is obtained and then micronized to fine powder particles.

Azodicarbonamide doesn’t react in dry flour, but does react in the process of making dough. 
When mixed into dough, Azodicarbonamide oxidizes the sulfhydryl (SH) groups and exerts an improving effect.
The oxidation is rapid and almost complete during the mixing of dough for 2.5 min. 

Neither further mixing or prolonged resting could give a significant and additional decrease in the –SH content. 
ADA is used where a faster maturing agent is required. 
Treatment levels ranging from 2 to 45 p.p.m. of azodicarbonamide are required to accomplish maturing, the amount depending on the grade of flour.
If trying to create a more organic product, Azodicarbonamide is best to find a natural substitute for ADA.

Appearance: A yellow to orange.red, odorless crystalline powder 
Other names: Azodicarboxamide, Azobisformamide
CAS number: 123.77.3
Chemical formula: C2H4O2N4
Molecular weight: 116.08
Solubility: Insoluble in water and most organic solvents, easily soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N.dimethylformamide.

Formamide, 1,1'.azobis.; C,C'.azodi(formamide); Diazenedicarboxamide;Azodicarbonamide;ABFA; ADA; ADC; Azobisformamide; 1,1.Azobisformamide Azodicarbonic acid diamide; Azodicarboxamide; Azoformamide; Diazenedicarboxamide; Formamide, 1,1.azobis.

Linear Formula: NH2CON=NCONH2
CAS Number: 123.77.3
Molecular Weight: 116.08
Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 1704003
EC Number: 204.650.8
MDL number: MFCD00007958
PubChem Substance ID: 24891486

How does E927a (Azodicarbonamide) work?
Azodicarbonamide itself almost does not work with flour, but when mixed with flour and water to form a dough, Azodicarbonamide quickly releases active oxygen and oxidizes the sulfhydryl groups of amino acids to disulfide bonds in the molecule of protein. 
Therefore Azodicarbonamide improves the elasticity, toughness and uniformity of the dough. 
Noodles produced with azodicarbonamide are smooth, soft, white, and resistant to boiling. 
Flour with low protein and low gluten content requires an efficient and low.cost dough conditioner. 

Quality Level: 100
assay: 97%
mp: 220.225 °C (dec.) (lit.)
solubility: water: soluble 0.033 g/L at 20 °C
SMILES string: NC(=O)N=NC(N)=O
InChI: 1S/C2H4N4O2/c3.1(7)5.6.2(4)8/h(H2,3,7)(H2,4,8)/b6.5+

.Is ADA necessary to make bread?
No. The use of ADA as a whitening agent and dough conditioner is not necessary to make bread and there are alternative ingredients approved for use available.


Azodicarbonamide, ADA, or azo(bis)formamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is a yellow to orange.red, odorless, crystalline powder. 
Azodicarbonamide, the diamide of azodicarboxylic acid, is an orange.red crystalline solid. 

Azodicarbonamide is made industrially by the condensation reaction between hydrazine sulfate and urea under high temperature and pressure, followed by oxidation with NaOCl.
Azodicarbonamide has several commercial uses: Azodicarbonamide is a blowing agent for foaming rubbers and plastics, a bleaching (oxidizing) agent in cereal flours, and a dough conditioner for baking bread.
Azodicarbonamide is sometimes called a 'yoga mat' chemical because of Azodicarbonamides widespread use in foamed plastics.

Celogen AZ
Porofor ChKhZ 21

The use of azodicarbonamide, H2N–CO–N=N–CO–NH2 (ADA) for maturing flour was patented in 1959. 
The optimum addition level for flour is between 10 and 20 mg per kg flour. 
ADA is one of the fastest oxidants used as a dough improver in breadmaking reacting within a few minutes after flour and water are mixed. 

The action of ADA is similar to that of iodate, but even faster. 
Azodicarbonamide reduces the SH content of dough and thereby is converted into biurea. 
The reaction scheme shows that one molar equivalent of ADA is required to oxidise two equivalents of thiols.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is also used in plastics to improve elasticity and can be found in yoga mats and shoes.

Meet Azodicarbonamide (E927.), the famous rubber/bead chemical that made headlines. 
Popular blogger Food Babe, created a petition that not only changed how Subway made Azodicarbonamides bread; Azodicarbonamide got the attention of New York Senator, Chuck Schumer. 

Azo is a food additive used mostly in breads to make the bread fluffy. 
The FDA claims that Azodicarbonamide can be safely used at levels up to 45 parts per million as a dough conditioner, aging, and bleaching ingredient. 
In addition to making food fluffy, Azo also extends the shelf life of a product.

The fast food chain, Subway, made headlines recently when it stopped using the additive in bread.  
This move came after a successful online campaign and petition.

Azodicarbonamide is a crystalline powder.
Azodicarbonamide is yellow to orange red in colour. 
Azodicarbonamide is odourless.  
The full chemical formula is C2H4O2N4.

Porofor ChKhZ 21R
Celogen AZ 130
Celogen AZ 199
Kempore R 125
ChKhz 21
ChKhZ 21r
Formamide, 1,1'.azobis.

If you’re concerned about azodicarbonamide, make sure you read ingredient labels.  
Azodicarbonamide is relatively easy to find products that do not list Azodicarbonamide as an ingredient.  
Look for unbleached flour.

ADA.treated flours produce dried and more cohesive doughs than chlorine dioxide.treated flours.
These dried doughs can tolerate higher absorption, show better gas.retention properties and are superior in machining properties. 
The bread made from ADA.treated flour is characterized by increased loaf volume and improved grain texture and outside appearance. 
Azodicarbonamide does not accelerate the onset of rancidity in flour. 
Natural or enrichment vitamins are unaffected by azodicarbonamide.

Azodicarbonamide, 97%
Poramid K 1
Unifoam AZH 25
Kempore 60/40
Porofor.lk 1074 (bayer)

Azodicarbonamide is a chemical compound which ranges in color from yellow to orange red, odorless by nature and is in form of crystalline powder. 
Azodicarbonamide is extensively used as a blowing agent, food additive, and a foaming agent. 
Azodicarbonamide is basically used in rubber and plastic products such as yoga mats. 
Thus, Azodicarbonamide is commercially practiced by bakers as a whitening conditioner for bread dough.

HSDB 1097
EINECS 204.650.8
NSC 41038

What is azodicarbonamide (ADA)?
Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is a chemical substance approved for use as a whitening agent in cereal flour and as a dough conditioner in bread baking.

.On what basis did FDA approve the use of ADA?
FDA approved the use of ADA as a food additive in cereal flour and as a dough conditioner based on a comprehensive review of safety studies, including multi.year feeding studies.

Azodicarbonamide: What is Azodicarbonamide and Why is Azodicarbonamide in My Food?
Azodicarbonamide has become known as the “yoga mat” chemical. 

But, what is Azodicarbonamide really? 
Azodicarbonamide is a chemical compound added to flour as a bleaching and improving agent. 
Azodicarbonamide is also used as a foaming agent in the production some plastic products (such as yoga mats).

NSC 674447

Azodicarbonamide, also known as ADA, was found as an ingredient in breads, bagels, tortillas, hamburger and hot dog buns, pizza, pastries, and other food products, according to a report by the Environmental Working Group, based in Washington.
Some consumer groups have called for the removal of azodicarbonamide from use in foods. 
Fast food chain Subway said earlier this month that Azodicarbonamide was removing the chemical from Azodicarbonamides products, but stated that ADA is a safe and widely used ingredient for many foods.
Azodicarbonamide is fully approved for use in food by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 
But ADA is banned as an additive in Australia and some European countries.
As a food additive, azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent and as an oxidizing agent in dough to improve Azodicarbonamides performance for bakers. 

Azoform A
Paramid K1
Azobis CA 51C
Azobis CA 110B
Azodicarboxamide, 97%

One scare relating to Azodicarbonamide occurred in 2003. 
Not in regards to regards to Azodicarbonamides use IN food but in food contacting containers. 
At this time a baby food company was monitoring it’s products for prohibited chemicals, namely nitrofurazone, which is a veterinary antibiotic prohibited in European foods. 
The company found traces of semicarbazide (SEM), which they thought to be a metabolite of nitrofurazone, thus indicating its presence. 
They found that Azodicarbonamide came from the breakdown of azodicarbonamide.

EC 204.650.8

Food (ingestion)
In some jurisdictions, the use of azodicarbonamide as a flour bleaching agent has been phased out. 
For example, Azodicarbonamide is no longer authorized for use in Australia and the European Union as a food additive.
Azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent in plastics has been banned in the European Union since August 2005 for the manufacture of plastic articles that are intended to come into direct contact with food.

In the United States, azodicarbonamide has a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and is allowed to be added to flour at levels up to 45 ppm.
However, use in products intended for human consumption is in decline under pressure of the public opinion.
In 2014, amid public discomfort with the dual uses of azodicarbonamide, the sandwich franchise Subway and hamburger franchise Wendy's announced that they would no longer use it as a dough conditioner.
As of February 2014, the Center for Science in the Public Interest stated azodicarbonamide "has been poorly tested" and advocates for reducing the amount of azodicarbonamide that is allowed to be used in food.

Azodicarboxamide, 99%, FCC

Azodicarbonamide is used as a flour bleaching agent to improve the appearance of the final product.
E927a (Azodicarbonamide) reacts with moist flour as an oxidizing agent; the main reaction product is biurea, a derivative of urea, which is stable during baking.

In the United States and China, limited amounts of azodicarbonamide are considered safe and Azodicarbonamides addition to flour is allowed up to 45 and 20 mg/Kg, respectively.3,4
In Australia and Europe, azodicarbonamide is banned as a food additive.

Therefore, Azodicarbonamide is necessary to establish efficient and sensitive methods to determine azodicarbonamide in flour, and HPLC with UV detection offers the advantages of method accuracy and ruggedness.
Azodicarbonamide, also known as azo(bis)formamide or Diazenedicarboxamide, is a chemical compound used as a food additive, a flour bleaching agent, and a dough conditioner. 
Ungraded products supplied by Spectrum are indicative of a grade suitable for general industrial use or research purposes and typically are not suitable for human consumption or therapeutic use.


Unfortunately, this process is slow and the results are inconsistent. 
Aging flour can be costly and time consuming for industrial producers. 
Azodicarbonamide is used to speed up the oxidation process. 
This allows companies to produce a more consistent product and get the flour to market sooner. 
Modification affects the reaction temperatures. 

Azodicarboxamide, analytical reference material
Azodicarbonamide [UN3242] [Flammable solid]

As a blowing agent, Azodicarbonamide is used in plastics, synthetics leather, and other industries. 
Pure azodicarbonamide usually reacts approximately around 200 °C. 
While using Azodicarbonamide for plastics, leather and other utilities it contains additives that strengthen the reaction or react at lower temperatures. 

Why does your flour need bleaching?  
To make Azodicarbonamide more white, first of all, so that Azodicarbonamide looks nice.  
But that’s incidental.  
Freshly milled flour simply doesn’t make a good loaf of bread.  
Bread made with fresh flour tends to be slack, tough, and saggy.  

Bread flour needs to age.  
This frees up groups of sulfur ions at the ends of chains of glutenin (one of the two natural compounds that react in wet flour to create gluten) so that they bond into gluten strands more strongly, resulting in a proud, high loaf.  
But naturally ageing flour takes a long time.  
And manufacturers can speed up this oxidation process by bleaching the flour, often with azodicarbonamide.  

This quickly, chemically oxidizes the flour, so Azodicarbonamide can immediately be shipped to consumers and result in a strong, happy loaf of bread.  
The alternative is unbleached flour, which is aged naturally until Azodicarbonamide oxidizes, and this explains why unbleached flour is more expensive than bleached flour…which always made about as much sense to me as why low.sodium chicken stock would cost more than regular sodium.  
There’s LESS sodium, so why is Azodicarbonamide more expensive?  

The answer for flour is that production costs are higher to age the flour naturally, because the process takes longer.  
A few cents worth of azodicarbonamide and the flour is ready to go immediately.  
I’m a staunch user of unbleached flours, but most pastry chefs won’t touch the stuff.  
E927a (Azodicarbonamide)’s bleached or nothing for them, because Azodicarbonamide results in a superior product.

Azodicarboxylic acid diamide
Celogen AZ
Celogen AZ 130
Celogen AZ 199
Celosen AZ
ChKhz 21R

The concern: Azodicarbonamide is known to increase the risk of asthma, allergies and skin problems . and some experts believe Azodicarbonamide hasn't been adequately tested in humans at the concentrations people may ingest if they eat numerous products that contain Azodicarbonamide.
In Azodicarbonamides report, provocatively titled "500 Ways to Make a Yoga Mat Sandwich," the Environmental Working Group lists more than 130 companies, from Betty Crocker to Pillsbury to Little Debbie, which use azodicarbonamide in their products. 
But the big "conventional" bakers aren't the only ones on the list; more "health".oriented brands like Earth Grains, Artisan's Choice, and even Manischewitz use it also. 
(Including, experts warn, in products labeled "natural" and "whole grain".
As used in modern industry Azodicarbonamide is dangerous enough, and has been proven to trigger asthma attacks and other respiratory problems in workers exposed to the chemical.

Ficel EP.A
Formamide, 1,1'.azobis.
Genitron AC
Genitron AC 2
Genitron AC 4
Kempore 125
Kempore R 125
Lucel ADA
Pinhole ACR 3
Pinhole AK 2

In 2014, Azodicarbonamide appeared in the news when a consumer food blogger brought to attention that Subway, McDonald's and others were using Azodicarbonamide in their breads. 
The concern is with regard to the safety and effects of the compound on human health. 

What’re the Uses of E927a (Azodicarbonamide)? 
Food grade ADA is used for the purpose of making flour white and strengthening dough in bread. 
Due to the functions of bleaching and oxidation, azodicarbonamide is a fast.acting gluten enhancer that strengthens the elasticity and toughness of gluten, and makes a high.strength dough. 
Azodicarbonamide works immediately even if the flour is wet. 

E927a (Azodicarbonamide) Origin:
Obtained from carbonamide.

E927a (Azodicarbonamide) Function & Characteristics:
Bread enhancer. Bleaching agent for flour.

E927a (Azodicarbonamide) Products:
Bread but practically not used.

Acceptable E927a (Azodicarbonamide) daily intake (ADI) :
Up to 45 mg/kg bodyweight

This E927a (Azodicarbonamide) is used not only to produce plastics and synthetic leathers, Azodicarbonamide is also used in food.  
Azodicarbonamides primary use is to bleach flour.

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