Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH. Gluconic acid is one of the 16 stereoisomers of 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid.
CAS NUMBER: 526-95-4
gluconic acid; D-gluconic acid; 526-95-4; dextronic acid; maltonic acid; Glycogenic acid; gluconate; Glosanto; Pentahydroxycaproic acid; 2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid; D-Gluco-hexonic acid; Gluconic acid, D-; Gluconic acid; D-Gluconsaeure; D-Glukonsaeure; UNII-R4R8J0Q44B; BRN 1726055; HSDB 487; C6H12O7; EINECS 208-401-4; NSC 77381; Glyconic acid; Hexonic acid; R4R8J0Q44B; 133-42-6; CHEBI:33198; Dextronate; Glycogenate; Glyconate; Maltonate; MFCD00004240; 2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxycaproic acid; Gluconic Acid (contains Gluconolactone); GCO; 157663-13-3
In aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the gluconate ion. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates". Gluconic acid, gluconate salts, and gluconate esters occur widely in nature because such species arise from the oxidation of glucose. Some drugs are injected in the form of gluconates. The chemical structure of gluconic acid consists of a six-carbon chain, with five hydroxyl groups positioned in the same way as in the open-chained form of glucose, terminating in a carboxylic acid group. In aqueous solution, gluconic acid exists in equilibrium with the cyclic ester glucono delta-lactone. Gluconic acid is produced by oxidizing glucose. This can be accomplished in several ways: Via hydrogen peroxide, Via bromine, In a fermentation bath. Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey, and wine. In 1929 Horace Terhune Herrick developed a process for producing the salt by fermentation. As a food additive, Gluconic acid is now known as an acidity regulator.
The gluconate anion chelates Ca2+, Fe2+, Al3+, and other metals, including lanthanides and actinides. It is also used in cleaning products, where Gluconic acid dissolves mineral deposits, especially in alkaline solution. Calcium gluconate, in the form of a gel, is used to treat burns from hydrofluoric acid; calcium gluconate injections may be used for more severe cases to avoid necrosis of deep tissues, as well as to treat hypocalcemia in hospitalized patients. Gluconate is also an electrolyte present in certain solutions, such as "plasmalyte a", used for intravenous fluid resuscitation. Quinine gluconate is a salt of gluconic acid and quinine, which is used for intramuscular injection in the treatment of malaria. Zinc gluconate injections are used to neuter male dogs. Ferrous gluconate injections have been proposed in the past to treat anemia. Gluconate is also used in building and construction as a concrete admixture (retarder) to slow down the cement hydration reactions, and to delay the cement setting time. Gluconic acid allows for a longer time to lay the concrete, or to spread the cement hydration heat over a longer period of time to avoid too high a temperature and the resulting cracking. Retarders are mixed in to concrete when the weather temperature is high or to cast large and thick concrete slabs in successive and sufficiently well-mixed layers.
Gluconic Acid is the carboxylic acid formed by the oxidation of the first carbon of glucose with antiseptic and chelating properties. Gluconic acid, found abundantly in plant, honey and wine, can be prepared by fungal fermentation process commercially. This agent and its derivatives can used in formulation of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food products as additive or buffer salts. Aqueous gluconic acid solution contains cyclic ester glucono delta lactone structure, which chelates metal ions and forms very stable complexes. In alkaline solution, this agent exhibits strong chelating activities towards anions, i.e. calcium, iron, aluminium, copper, and other heavy metals. Gluconic acid is a gluconic acid having D-configuration. Gluconic Acid has a role as a chelator and a Penicillium metabolite. Gluconic Acid is a conjugate acid of a D-gluconate. Gluconic Acid is an enantiomer of a L-gluconic acid.
Gluconic acid (2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxy caproic acid, C6H12O7) is a noncorrosive, nontoxic, mild organic acid with a bro Gluconic acid a good chelator at high pH, with better activity than commonly used chelators. Gluconic acid is used in the manufacture of metal, leather, and food. Gluconic acid has been accredited with the capability of inhibiting bitterness in foods. Sodium gluconate is permitted in food and Gluconic acid has GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status. This salt is also utilized as a sequestering agent in many detergents, and added to cement to improve the hardening process. The physiological functions of gluconic acid accumulation for these organisms are not clear; one possibility is its contribution to the competitiveness of the organism, removing glucose from the close environment. In the case of P. expansum (a phytopathogenic fungus), Gluconic acid was demonstrated that secreted gluconic acid contributed to the colonization and disease development of apple tissues by this fungus.
Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid, neither caustic nor corrosive and with an excellent sequestering power. Non-toxic and readily biodegradable (98 % after 2 days), Gluconic acid occurs naturally in plants, fruits and other foodstuffs such as wine (up to 0.25 %) and honey (up to 1 %). Gluconic acid is prepared by fermentation of glucose, whereby the physiological d-form is produced. In all recipes where gluconic acid is used together with sodium hydroxide, we recommend the direct use of sodium gluconate, the dry sodium salt of gluconic acid or the special product. Gluconic acid has versatile properties through being a polyhydroxycarboxylic acid, with both hydroxyl and carboxyl groups which can react. Concentrated solutions of gluconic acid contain some lactone (GdL), the neutral cyclic ester, which is less soluble in the cold and possesses no actual acid properties. About 5 % of GdL are present in the 50 % gluconic acid solution at room temperature.
The outstanding property of gluconic acid is its excellent chelating power, especially in alkaline and concentrated alkaline solutions. In this respect, Gluconic acid surpasses all other chelating agents, such as EDTA, NTA and related compounds. Calcium, iron, copper, aluminium and other heavy metals are firmly chelated in alkaline solution and masked in such a way that their interferences are eliminated. Gluconic acid is stable at the boiling point even of concentrated alkaline solutions. However, Gluconic acid is easily and totally degraded in waste water treatment plants (98 % after 2 days). Gluconic acid is a noncorrosive, nonvolatile, nontoxic, mild organic acid. It imparts a refreshing sour taste in many food items such as wine, fruit juices, etc. Sodium gluconate has a high sequestering power. Gluconic acid is a good chelator at alkaline pH; its action is comparatively 186 S. RAMACHANDRAN et al.: Gluconic Acid: A Review, Food Technol. Biotechnol. General gluconate pathways better than EDTA, NTA and other chelators. Aqueous solutions of sodium gluconate are resistant to oxidation and reduction at high temperatures. Gluconic acid is an efficient plasticizer and a highly efficient set retarder. Gluconic acid is easily biodegradable (98 % at 48 h). Gluconic acid has an interesting property of inhibiting bitterness in foodstuffs. Concentrated gluconic acid solution contains certain lactone structures (neutral cyclic ester) showing antiseptic property.
Gluconic acid is abundantly available in plants, fruits and other foodstuffs such as rice, meat, dairy products, wine (up to 0.25 %), honey (up to 1 %), and vinegar. Gluconic acid is produced by different microorganisms as well, which include bacteria such as Pseudomonas ovalis, Acetobacter methanolicus, Zymomonas mobilis, Acetobacter diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Azospirillum brasiliense, fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium funiculosum, P. variabile, P. amagasakiense, and various other species such as Gliocladium, Scopulariopsis, Gonatobotrys, Endomycopsi and yeasts such as Aureobasidium pullulans (formerly known as Dematium or Pullularia pullulans). Ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma robustum, which is associated with the roots of Pinus densiflora, was found to synthesise gluconic acid.
Gluconic acid is a water-soluble organic acid that belongs to the hydroxycarboxylic acid family. Gluconic acid is an oxidation product of glucose that occurs widely in nature, and is present in fruit, wine, honey, and other natural sources. The chemical structure of gluconic acid of a six-carbon chain with five hydroxyl (-OH) groups terminating in a carboxylic acid group. The close proximity of the oxygen atoms within the chemical structure lends to its function as a highly efficient chelating agent. Chelating agents bind to positively charged metal ions in solution and thereby prevent them from forming insoluble precipitates with other ions that may be present. Gluconic acid functions as a chelating agent over a wide pH range. . Gluconic acid is efficient in forming stable chelates with divalent and trivalent metal ions such as calcium, copper, iron, aluminum, and other metals, reducing the adverse effects these metals can have on systems. Gluconic acid also acts as a humectant, which means that . Gluconic acid attracts water and increases hydration in products. Gluconic acid is used as a high performing chelating agent, processing aid, and humectant in a variety of applications and product sectors. Section 5 includes conditions of use for this chemical.
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid; 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid; D(-)pentahydroxycaproic acid; D-GLUCONIC ACID; D-Gluconic acid; D-gluconic acid; D-gluconic acid/EC 208-401-4; gluconic acid; Gluconic acid; Gluconic Acid, 50% wt; Gluconic acid- DOW BENELUX B.V.; Ácido 2,3,4,5,6-pentahidroxihexanóico
526-95-4; 723724-74-1; 880385-91-1; 887830-55-9
Gluconic acid is a 6-carbon aldonic acid (oxidized sugar) derived from glucose. EPA used best professional judgement to select analogs for gluconic acid based on similarity in structure, physical-chemical properties and functionality, with the assumption that these chemicals will have similar properties, environmental transport and persistence characteristics, and bioavailability and toxicity profiles. Sodium glucoheptonate is an aldonic acid and has a chain length of 7 carbons. The sodium, potassium and calcium salts of gluconic acid are expected to readily dissociate under environmentally and biologically relevant conditions to release gluconic acid and/or the gluconate anion, depending on ambient pH. As a result, the environmental and health effects of these compounds are expected to be very similar to those of gluconic acid. Glucono-delta-lactone is a cyclic ester (lactone) of gluconic acid. The two compounds are interconverted to each other and exist in equilibrium in aqueous solution. Based on these factors, the environmental and toxicological effects of glucono-delta-lactone and gluconic acid are expected to be very similar to each other.
Gluconic acid and its derivatives are naturally occurring substances. In mammalian organisms both D-gluconic acid and its 1,5-lactone are important intermediates in the carbohydrate metabolism. Gluconate is a metabolite of glucose oxidation. The daily production of gluconate from endogenous sources is about 450 mg/kg for a 60 kg person. A significant portion (60-85%) of parenterally administered gluconate is excreted unchanged in the urine. Gluconic acid, its salts of sodium, potassium and calcium as well as glucono-delta-lactone are all characterised by a low vapour pressure, and a low octanol/water partition coefficient (estimated as -5.99 for the sodium salt, -7.51 for the calcium salt, - 5.99 for the potassium salt, -1.87 for the free acid and -1.98 for GDL). The dissociation constant of gluconic acid is in the range of 3.5 to 3.8. Because of their good water solubility (from 30 g/L for calcium gluconate to 590 g/L for sodium gluconate) and low Log Ko/w, no bioaccumulation effects are to be expected, the substances were also shown to be readily metabolised.
Gluconic acid and its derivatives are used as medicines, in foods, as mineral supplements in cosmetics and as a component of various hygienic products. From gluconic acid, as a retarder and water reducer for concrete in the construction industry; As a separator for metal ions in the metal process; As a controller of heavy metal and water hardness in bottle washing; Is used as a separator for heavy metal ions in the textile industry. Gluconic acid is also used in metal cleaning for scouring, water softening, domestic and industrial cleaning compounds, paper and textile assistants. Gluconic acid is produced from dextrose (glucose). The tranformation of glucose to gluconic acid can be achieved with the aid of enzymes (glucose oxidase) or by fermentation with certain moulds. With glucose, as with all products of starch saccharification, various applications of gene technology are possible. Raw material: maize starch may consist partly of genetically modified maize, especially if the raw materials are imported out of the USA or Argentina. In some EU countries, genetically modified maize is grown on comparatively small areas and nonetheless is not used as raw material for foodstuff. This may change in the case that the cultivation of GM maize increases in significance. Ingredients derived from several types of GM maize are approved in the EU.
Enzymes solubilise plant starch and metabolise Gluconic acid into compounds that are classified as ingredients and additives. Several of these enzymes, such as amylases, glucose-isomerase and pullulanase (used in starch saccharification) are produced with help of GM microorganisms . Gluconic acid is a naturally-occurring, organic carboxylic acid. The acid and its derivatives are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, cleaning solutions, and food products. In alkaline solution, Gluconic acid is a strong chelating agent towards heavy metal anions. Gluconic acid, also known as D-gluconate or D-glukonsaeure, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. Sugar acids and derivatives are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group. Gluconic acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Gluconic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans.
Gluconic acid is present at low levels in musts and in wines derived from a usual harvest at levels not exceeding 200 – 300 mg/L. At elevated levels Gluconic acid can contribute to a sour taste in musts or wine. Early detection of elevated levels > ~300 mg/L of gluconic acid associated with Botrytis cinerea infection allows for effective screening of grapes pre-harvest, and gives the winemaker the opportunity to determine the most appropriate winemaking strategy. This method involves determining D-gluconic acid using a commercial enzymatic kit and a Discrete Analyser. The lower limit of reporting for gluconic acid with this method is 50 mg/L and the upper limit is 5,000 mg/L. Results outside these limits will be reported as < 50 mg/L or > 5,000 mg/L. Grape or juice samples can be submitted fresh or frozen, and juice must be submitted in a plastic container. Gluconic Acid, 50 Percent Aqueous Solution, also known as Dextronic acid, is considered a gluconate and can be used to treat burns from hydrofluoric acid. Spectrum solutions utilize the highest quality raw materials appropriate to your product. Most raw materials meet or exceed the specifications established by the American Chemical Society. Where appropriate, many finished products are traceable to NIST Standard Reference Materials. Manufacturing, quality control testing, and packaging are all performed in Spectrum's own facilities. Record keeping and sample retention of all produced lots ensure product consistency and complete traceability.
Gluconic acid (also known as gluconate) is an organic compound occurring widely in nature arising from the glucose oxidation. It is naturally found in fruit, honey and wine. Gluconic acid can also be used as a food additive to regulate acidity and a cleaning agent in alkaline solution. Its calcium salt, calcium gluconate can be used to treat burns from hydrofluoric acid and avoid necrosis of deep tissues as well as treating the verapamil poisoning and hypocalcemia in hospitalized patient. Some salts of gluconate can also be used to treat malaria (quinidine gluconate) and anemia (ferrous gluconate). In microbiology, gluconate is a common carbon source that can be supplemented to the medium for cell growth. Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH. Gluconic acid is one of the 16 stereoisomers of 2,3,4,5,6-penta hydroxy hexanoic acid.
In aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the gluconate ion. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates". Gluconic acid, gluconate salts, and gluconate esters occur widely in nature because such species arise from the oxidation of glucose. Some drugs are injected in the form of gluconates. Gluconic acid is an acid sugar composed of white crystals with a milk-acidic taste. In aqueous solutions, Gluconic acid is in equilibrium with gamma- and delta-gluconolactones. Gluconic acid is prepared by enzymatic oxidation of glucose and strains of the microorganisms used to supply the enzyme action are nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic to man or other animals. This substance is used as a component of bottle rinsing formulations, at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice. The chemical structure of gluconic acid consists of a six-carbon chain with five hydroxyl groups terminating in a carboxylic acid group. In aqueous solution, gluconic acid exists in equilibrium with the cyclic ester glucono delta-lactone.
Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey, kombucha tea, and wine. As a food additive, Gluconic acid is an acidity regulator. Gluconic acid is also used in cleaning products where Gluconic acid dissolves mineral deposits especially in alkaline solution. The gluconate anion chelates Ca2+,Fe2+, Al3+, and other metals. In 1929 Horace Terhune Herrick developed a process for producing the salt by fermentation. Gluconic acid, in the form of a gel, is used to treat burns from hydrofluoric acid; Gluconic acid injections may be used for more severe cases to avoid necrosis of deep tissues. Quinine gluconate is a salt between gluconic acid and quinine, which is used for intramuscular injection in the treatment of malaria. Zinc gluconate injections are used to neuter male dogs. Iron gluconate injections have been proposed in the past to treat anemia. Currently, gluconic acid is commercially produced by submerged fed-batch cultivations of Aspergillus niger using glucose as substrate. A. niger produces citric acid and gluconic acid growing on glucose. The product concentration and yields of the product depend on the fermentation conditions. For optimal gluconic acid production, high glucose concentrations (110–250 g.L-1), low concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the medium, a limitation of metal ion concentrations, a pH value in the range of 4.5–6.5, and high aeration rates for the oxygen supply are needed.
Much research has been carried out to find new ways for cheaper production. Different microorganisms have been studied (e.g. G. oxydans, Z. mobilis, A. methanolicous, and P. fluorescence. Moreover, new microbial strains have been developed by mutagenesis or genetic engineering. Additionally, the fermentation process and recovery have been optimized. New inexpensive substrates (e.g. cornstarch, grape or banana must, figs, and cheese whey) have been tested. One example of a new and efficient production process of gluconic acid is the cultivation of Aureobasidium pullulans growing on glucose. Using a continuous process with biomass retention by crossover filtration, a product concentration of 375 g.L-1, a yield of 0.83 g of gluconic acid per gram of glucose, and a productivity of 17 g.L-1.h-1 could be achieved at a residence time of 22 h. In this process, 100 % of the glucose is converted. This process might be interesting for industrial applications. In continuous gluconic acid production with immobilized mycelia of A. niger, product concentrations of 120–140 g.L-1 have been achieved.
Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi.
Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.
Gluconic acid, 1,2,3,4,5‐pentahydroxy pentane‐1‐carboxylic acid, C6H12O7, Mr 196.16, was discovered in 1870 by Hlasiwetz and Habermann during the oxidation of glucose with chlorine. The substance was isolated in the form of its barium and calcium salts. Several authors subsequently reported that gluconic acid could be obtained by treatment of various mono‐, di‐, and polysaccharides with oxidizing agents such as elemental halogen, copper(II) or hexacyanoferrate(III) salts, or mercury(II) oxide. Depending on the type of sugar and the oxidant employed, byproducts of the reaction include formic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, and carbon dioxide. As early as 1880 Boutroux recognized that gluconic acid was produced, together with acetic acid, by the oxidative action of Acetobacter aceti on glucose. This characteristic was also found to be associated with numerous other bacteria. Molliard was the first to report the presence of gluconic acid in cultures of Sterigmatocystis nigra, now known as Aspergillus niger. The currently preferred method for preparing gluconic acid and its derivatives with the aid of Aspergillus strains is based on the work of a number of authors. The catalytic activity of the enzyme glucose oxidase was first described by Müller.
Gluconic acid and its derivatives, particularly the alkali salts, are capable of forming water-soluble complexes with certain metallic ions. This conversion of divalent and trivalent ions, such as calcium and iron, to a deionized but water-soluble form has been defined as sequestering . The effectiveness of sodium gluconate as a sequestrant has been studied and compared with such materials as sodium citrate, sodium tetraphosphate, and the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Gluconic acid (C6H12O7) is an acid sugar belonging to the aldonic acid family. Chemically, . Gluconic acid is one of the 16 stereoisomers of 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid and results from the specific oxidation of the aldehyde group at C1 in β-d-glucose to a carboxyl group by chemical, electrochemical, or catalytic means or, alternatively, through biotransformation by microorganisms (fungi or bacteria) or their enzymes.
Because . Gluconic acid is both an acid and an alcohol, . Gluconic acid can undergo 1,5 intramolecular esterification. The process is favoured by an acid medium and involves the spontaneous loss of a water molecule to yield intramolecular anhydride glucono-δ-lactone, which is a cyclic ester. In aqueous solutions, the acid is in equilibrium with its lactones. Because . Gluconic acid is a weak acid (Ka = 1.99·10−4 at 25 °C), it accounts for 55–66% of all species in solution. Because γ-lactone forms roughly one hundred times more slowly than δ-lactone, equilibrium is reached very slowly. Adding a base to the ester rapidly cleaves the aldonic ring to yield an open-chain salt: a gluconate. This salt can easily bind di- and trivalent metals to form highly stable chemical compounds that can only react with strong oxidants such as nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide. Under typical conditions, the oxidation reaction yields a mixture of 2- and 5-keto-D-gluconate (2-KGA and 5-KGA, respectively) – and, under extreme conditions, also 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate (2,5-DKGA) – in variable proportions.
Gluconic acid is a weak, non-volatile, harmless (odourless, non-corrosive, non-toxic), easily biodegradable acid that is soluble in water and insoluble in non-polar solvents. Gluconic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in plants, fruits and other foods such as rice, honey, grapes, apples, meat, wine and vinegar. Like many other organic acids, Gluconic acid is involved in the metabolism of a number of living organisms. The acid and its derivatives have gained increasing interest in food, pharmaceutical, textile and building industries over the past 50 years. At present, the production of Gluconic acid is estimated to amount to approximately 100000 ton/year and to be almost exclusively biotechnological, with production costs ranging from 1.20 US$/kg for Gluconic acid to 8.50 US$/kg for calcium gluconate and glucono-δ-lactone. Sodium gluconate is the most widely marketed Gluconic acid derivative, accounting for more than 80% of the world production, according to Roehr et al. Gluconic acid is commercially available as a 50% aqueous solution of a pH of 1.82 and 1.23 g/cm3 density.
Organic acids comprise a highly heterogeneous group of compounds with diverse uses that range widely depending on their particular structure. Thus, Gluconic acid and its derivatives – except glucono γ lactone are used mainly as additives by food, pharmaceutical, hygiene and building industries. For example, they are commonly added to dairy products and soft drinks to preserve and/or enhance their sensory properties. In 1986, the US Food and Drug Administration granted Generally Recognized As Safe status to the Gluconic acid derivatives, glucono-δ-lactone and sodium gluconate, and authorized their unrestricted use as food ingredients. In parallel, UN’s FAO and the World Health Organization have regulated the use of Gluconic acid and its derivatives (glucono-δ-lactone and D-gluconates) as food additives through good manufacturing practices established in their Codex General Standard for Food Additives.
Gluconic acid derivatives are acidity regulators (E574–E580), with raising, sequestering, hardening and flavour-enhancing properties.
In addition to improving the sensory properties of food products by imparting a bitter but refreshing taste, Gluconic acid prevents clouding by binding some metals potentially present at trace levels in drinks, for instance, Ca and Fe in fruit juices. Gluconic acid is also used as a food preservative for pickled foods, and glucono-δ-lactone is used as a preservative for cured meat-based sausages. In addition, some food processing plants use Gluconic acid derivatives as cleaning agents for their industrial facilities. Thus, alkaline solutions of sodium gluconate are used to clean glassware, but Gluconic acid is preferred for metal (steel, alloyed) components. For example, the dairy industry uses Gluconic acid derivatives to prevent the precipitation of calcium salts in processing equipment and glass storage vessels.
Additionally, the bakery industry uses glucono-δ-lactone to reduce the absorption of fatty compounds and as an acidifier and chemical baker’s yeast. The wide variety of bacteria capable of metabolizing glucose to Gluconic acid includes various AAB genera and strains from other genera such as Pseudomonas and Zymomonas. The metabolism of most aerobic bacteria involves the thorough oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide and water. Only under special growth conditions involving a high nutrient availability, certain microorganisms can lead to incomplete oxidation. Gluconic acid is a multifunctional organic acid used as a bulk chemical in the food, feed, pharmaceutical, textile, metallurgy, detergent, paper, and construction industries. Gluconic acid is derived from glucose through a simple oxidation reaction catalyzed by glucose oxidase. Oxidation of the aldehyde group on C-1 of β-d-glucose to a carboxyl group results in the production of glucono-δ-lactone (C6H10O6) and hydrogen peroxide using molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor. Glucono-δ-lactone is further hydrolyzed to gluconic acid either spontaneously or by lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme.
There are various approaches such as chemical, biochemical, and electrochemical available for Gluconic acid production, but microbial fermentation by Aspergillus niger using glucose oxidase is the most widely studied method. Microbial production of gluconic acid by bacteria, Gluconobacter, has also been demonstrated well. The enzyme involved in this process is glucose dehydrogenase. This chapter gives a review of microbial gluconic acid production; its recovery, properties, and applications; and the enzyme glucose oxidase. Gluconic acids are derived from "renewed" raw material sources, biodegradable and considered "safe" substances. Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid found naturally in fruits, herbs and natural products such as honey and wine. Gluconic acid and its derivatives are used in many industrial and consumer products and processes. Cosmetic products, detergents, concrete production, agricultural products, metal and surface coatings, micro-electronics sector can be cited as examples of the sectors in which these products are used. Gluconic acid and Gluconates are used in many industrial applications as sequestrants and sequestrants of metal ions. They are widely used as a "complexing agent" and especially "iron binder" in industrial cleaners, water conditioning chemicals, bottle washing products, leather, paper and textile industries.
Gluconic acid is a 50% solution of gluconic acid in water. Gluconic acid is a 6-carbon polyhydrocarboxylic acid. Gluconic acid is found in abundance in plants, fruits and other foodstuffs in nature. Gluconic acid is synthetically produced by fermentation. Gluconic acid exhibits separation properties by forming complexes with alkaline earth and heavy metal ions. Gluconic acid mixes with water in all proportions. Concentrated gluconic acid solutions exhibit antiseptic properties. It is stored at at least 15 oC, preferably between 20-25 oC. Crystallization may occur at lower temperatures. Gluconic acid and its derivatives are used as mineral supplements in medicines, foods, cosmetics and as a component of various hygienic products. From gluconic acid as a retarder and water reducer for concrete in the construction industry; as a separator for metal ions in metal processing; as a controller of heavy metal and water hardness in bottle washing; Gluconic acid is used as a separator for heavy metal ions in the textile industry.
Gluconic acid is also used in metal cleaning for flake removal, water softening, domestic and industrial cleaning compounds, paper and textile auxiliaries. Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey, and wine. As a food additive, Gluconic acid is an acidity regulator. Gluconic acid is used in cleaning products, especially mineral water beds in alkaline solutions. Gluconic acid is also used as an auxiliary chemical in separating heavy metal ions in cosmetic products, hygienic products, and textile industry. Gluconic acid is an organic compound produced biochemically by the oxidation of glucose by the glucose oxidase enzyme. Initially, gluco-δ-lactone is formed, which is converted into gluconic acid by the action of the enzyme lactanase or spontaneously.
Gluconic acid, honey, wine, fruits, etc. It is a non-toxic compound found. It is the acidic version of glucose. Gluconic acid is very soluble in water and generally slightly soluble in organic solvents. Gluconic acid was discovered by Hlasiwetz and Habermann in 1870 by oxidation of glucose with chlorine. Decades later, in 1922, Molliard determined the presence of gluconic acid in a culture medium for the fungus Sterigmatocystis nigra, now known as A. niger. The main industrial form of gluconic acid production is underwater glucose fermentation mediated by the A. niger fungus. However, bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas and Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, etc. Related strains such as are also used in glucose fermentation.