Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4). Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%. The predominant TFA was 18:2 n-6 (t9, t12) in both fresh and heated APSO. Individual TFA increased with significant differences (p < 0.05) with heating time. CLA occurred after 4 h and significantly increased (p < 0.05) accounting 10% of total TFA after 10 h. Total TFA are negatively correlated with α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol (p < 0.05) and carotenoïds (p < 0.01) and positively correlated with remaining DPPH.
Oil stability index (OSI) showed significant negative correlation with TFA (r = -0.925; p = 0.008). A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between fresh and heated oils. Temperature, heating time, unsaturation degree and antioxidants are combined factors which significantly affect the isomerization rate and nutritional quality of APSO.
Synonyms: Pinus abasica; Pinus arabica; Pinus maritima; Pinus parolinii; aleppo; alefo; aleppo pine; alefo pine; aleppo pine seed; aleppo pine seed oil;
The seeds of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) cultivated in Jordan were evaluated for their proximate composition and fatty acid, sterols, and amino acid contents. The fat, protein, ash and total carbohydrate contents (on dry matter basis) were 32.1, 29.8, 5.5 and 32.6%, respectively. The major fatty acids were linoleic (55.4%) and oleic (23%) acids. The seed oil content of Δ-5-olefinic acids was 8.7%. The unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio was 10.4. The major phytosterols were β-sitosterol (75.4%), campesterol (11.4%) and Δ-5-avenasterol (9.8%). The amino acid profile is characterized by high glutamic acid and arginine contents (193.7 and 140.3 mg/g protein respectively) and very low ratio of lysine to arginine (0.13). In conclusion, the high content of protein and unsaturated fatty acids, and the high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, as well as the presence of bioactive components including sterols, Δ-5-oleflnic acids, and the low ratio of lysine/arginine in Aleppo pine seeds contribute to a healthy heart diet.
Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4).
Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%. Temperature, heating time, unsaturation degree and antioxidants are combined factors which significantly affect the isomerization rate and nutritional quality of APSO.
Chemical Name: Aleppo pine seed oil
Segment: Personal care
INCI name: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill)
Function: Cold pressed oils
Chemical group: Vegetable oils & fats
Needles of Pinus halepensis Mill. were collected from three different locations at Sidi Feradj (SF), Djelfa (Dj) and Saïda (Sd) in Algeria. Their oils isolated by hydrodistillation yielding 0.5% from SF, 0.8% from Dj and 0.9% from Sd, have been investigated for their components by means of GC and GC/MS techniques. More then 41 compounds were identified in the needle oils of Sidi Feradj (SF) and Saïda (Sd) and 39 compounds in Djelfa (Dj). The main constituents of three samples of P. halepensis leaf oil were β-caryophyllene (19.8–25.8%), followed by α-humulene (6.2%) in SF and 10.5% in Sd and aromadendrene (8.5%) in Dj, while the third constituents were aromadendrene (4.2%) in SF and α-pinene (5.2%) in Dj and 6.4% in Sd.
The proximate composition of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seeds cultivated in Bizerta (Tunisia) were investigated for their fatty acid composition, and their thermal and physical properties of lipid fraction. The proximate analysis of pine seeds showed the following composition (on a dry-weight basis): protein 22.7%, oil 43.3%, ash 8.3% and total carbohydrate 25.7%. Potassium, magnesium and calcium were the predominant mineral elements present in the seeds and reached, together, about 1%. Oleic and linoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids (27.3 and 48.8%, respectively), while the main saturated one was palmitic acid (8.75%). Myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, margaric, margaroleic, stearic, linolenic, arachidic, eicosenoic, eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, behenic and lignoceric acids were also detected. Thermal profile of Pinus halepensis Mill. seed oil, determined by its DSC melting curve, showed that the entire liquefaction of the Aleppo pine seed oil occurs at 8°C. Physico-chemical properties of the oil include: saponification number 190, peroxide value 3.18, iodine index 117, and a low acidity of 0.61%.
Results suggested that the production of oil from Pinus halepensis seeds could provide a potential use in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and other non-food industries. It is made from the needles of the pine tree. The Aleppo Pine is a small to medium sized evergreen tree that grows on average to 15-25m (49-82 ft) tall with a trunk diameter up to 60cm (24 in) at a medium growth rate. When you see this tree you can tell that the shape is familiar. The base of the tree has longer and thicker branches, while the higher you get the branches point more upwards and come to a point at the top, but the tree is about as wide as it is tall or cone-shaped depending on the growth