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Cas number: 120313-48-6

Synonyms: Alcohols, C16-18, ethoxylated;(C16-C18) Alkyl alcohol ethoxylate; Aliphatic (C16-C18)alcohol, ethoxylated; (C16-C18) Fatty alcohol, ethylene oxide reaction product;(C16-C18)Alkyl alcohol ethoxylate; (C16-C18)Alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate;(C16-C18) Alkyl alcohol ethoxylate; (C16-C18) Fatty alcohol, ethylene oxide reaction product;(C16-C18)Alkyl alcohol ethoxylate; (C16-C18)Alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate; Alcohols C16-18, ethoxylated; Alcohols, C16-18, ethoxylated; Alcools en C16-18 ethoxyles; Alfonic 1618-46; 
Alfonic 1618-60; Alfonic 1618-62; Alfonic 1618-78; Alfonic 1618-80; Aliphatic (C16-C18)alcohol, ethoxylated; C16-18 alcohols, ethoxylated; C16-18 ethoxylated alc; C16-18 fatty alcs., ethoxylated; C16-18-Alkyl alcohol polyethyleneglycol ether; Cemulsol DB; Ceteareth; Ceteareth 11; Ceteareth 12; Ceteareth 15; Ceteareth 16; Ceteareth 18; Ceteareth 2;  Ceteareth 20; Ceteareth 23; Ceteareth 25; Ceteareth 30; Ceteareth 5; Ceteareth 50; Ceteareth 80; Cetomacrogol; Cetomacrogol 1000; Cetomacrogol 1000BP; Cetostearyl alcohol ethoxylated; Cremophor A 25; Cresmer 1000; Disponil TA 14; Empilan KM 11; Empilan KM 15; Empilan KM 20; Empilan KM 50; Emulgin B 1; Emulgin B 2; Emulgin B 3;Ethoxylated alcohols (C=16-18); Ethoxylated alcohols, C16-18; Ethoxylated C16-18 alcs.; Ethoxylated cetostearyl alcohol; Ethoxylated cetostearyl alcohols; Fatty alcs., C16-18, ethoxylated; Imbentin 168S300; 
Imbentin AG 168/060; Imbentin AG 168/090; Imbentin AG 168/200; Imbentin AG 168S030; Imbentin AG 168S110; Imbentin AG 168S300; KM 11; KM 20; Lutensol AT; Lutensol AT 100; Lutensol AT 11;  Lutensol AT 18; Lutensol AT 25; Lutensol AT 50; Lutensol AT 55; Lutensol AT 80; Plurafac A 38; Plurafac A 39; Plurafac LF 7000; 

Ethoxylation is a chemical reaction in which ethylene oxide adds to a substrate. It is the most widely practiced alkoxylation, which involves the addition of epoxides to substrates. In the usual application, alcohols and phenols are converted into R(OC2H4)nOH where n ranges from 1 to 10. Such compounds are called alcohol ethoxylates. Alcohol ethoxylates are often converted to related species called ethoxysulfates. Alcohol ethoxylates and ethoxysulfates are surfactants, used widely in cosmetic and other commercial products.

The process is of great industrial significance with more than 2,000,000 metric tons of various ethoxylates produced worldwide in 1994.The reaction proceeds by blowing ethylene oxide through the alcohol at 180 °C and under 1-2 bar of pressure, with potassium hydroxide (KOH) serving as a catalyst. The process is highly exothermic (ΔH -92 kJ/mol of ethylene oxide reacted) and requires careful control to avoid a potentially disastrous thermal runaway.

The starting materials are usually primary alcohols as they react ~10-30x faster than do secondary alcohols.Ethoxylated alcohols are considered to be a high production volume (HPV) chemical by the US EPA. Ethoxylation is sometimes combined with propoxylation, the analogous reaction using propylene oxide as the monomer. Both reactions are normally performed in the same reactor and may be run simultaneously to give a random polymer, or in alternation to obtain block copolymers such as poloxamers.

Propylene oxide is more hydrophobic than ethylene oxide and its inclusion at low levels can significantly affect the properties of the surfactant. In particular ethoxylated fatty alcohols which have been 'capped' with ~1 propylene oxide unit are extensively marketed as defoamers. Ethoxylated fatty alcohols are often converted to the corresponding organosulfates, which can be easily deprotonated to give anionic surfactants such as sodium laureth sulfate. Being salts, ethoxysulfates exhibit good water solubility (high HLB value). The conversion is achieved by treating ethoxylated alcohols with sulfur trioxide.

Although alcohols are by far the major substrate for ethoxylation, many nucleophiles are reactive toward ethylene oxide. Primary amines will react to give di-chain materials such as polyethoxylated tallow amine. The reaction of ammonia produces important bulk chemicals such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine. As alcohol ethoxylate based surfactants are non-ionic they typically require longer ethoxylate chains than their sulfonated analogues in order to be water-soluble.

Examples synthesized on an industrial scale include octyl phenol ethoxylate, polysorbate 80 and poloxamers. Ethoxylation is commonly practiced, albeit on a much smaller scale, in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to increase water solubility and, in the case of pharmaceuticals, circulatory half-life of non-polar organic compounds. In this application, ethoxylation is known as "PEGylation" (polyethylene oxide is synonymous with polyethylene glycol, abbreviated as PEG). Carbon chain length is 8-18 while the ethoxylated chain is usually 3 to 12 ethylene oxides long in home products.[16][page needed] They feature both lipophilic tails, indicated by the alkyl group abbreviation, R, and relatively polar headgroups, represented by the formula (OC2H4)nOH.

Alcohol ethoxylates are not observed to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, or skin sensitizers, nor cause reproductive or developmental effects.One byproduct of ethoxylation is 1,4-dioxane, a possible human carcinogen. Undiluted AEs can cause dermal or eye irritation. In aqueous solution, the level of irritation is dependent on the concentration. AEs are considered to have low to moderate toxicity for acute oral exposure, low acute dermal toxicity, and have mild irritation potential for skin and eyes at concentrations found in consumer products.

Toxicity to certain invertebrates has a range of EC50 values for linear AE from 0.1 mg/l to greater than 100 mg/l. For branched alcohol exthoxylates, toxicity ranges from 0.5 mg/l to 50 mg/l.[16] The EC50 toxicity for algae from linear and branched AEs was 0.05 mg/l to 50 mg/l. Acute toxicity to fish ranges from LC50 values for linear AE of 0.4 mg/l to 100 mg/l, and branched is 0.25 mg/l to 40 mg/l. For invertebrates, algae and fish the essentially linear and branched AEs are considered to not have greater toxicity than Linear AE.

Alkoxylated alcohols are nonionic surfactants made from various fatty alcohols ethoxylated and/or fatty acid propoxylated with various degrees of alkoxylation. These nonionic surfactants make excellent emulsifiers. Very useful in shampoos and bubble baths to control and adjust viscosity and lubricity.

EC number: 639-733-1

Hard surface cleaners are usually on acidic or alkaline systems and therefore necessitate a surfactant which is chemically stable at extreme pH. They can be employed alone or in conjunction with anionic; cationic or other non-ionic surfactants.Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, derived from natural fats and oils. They are colourless oily liquids or waxy solids (depending on the carbon numbers), although impure samples may appear yellow.

Surfactants: used as raw material for the manufacturer of sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES)
Detergents: a base liquid and powder detergents, household cleaning agents, industrial cleaning agents.
Cosmetics & Personal care: used as raw materials in shampoo, body gels and hand cleaners.
Textiles: used as scouring and wetting agents.
Agriculture: used as emulsifiers in herbicides, Insecticides and fertilizers.
Paper: used as wetting agents and improve absorbency.
Rubber: used as stabilizers for rubber.
Leather: used as degreasing and tanning agents.
Paint: used as wetting agents and dispersing agent.

Alcohol ethoxylates are used in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. Because these compounds are surfactants, they can be used whenever oily substances come into contact with water or a surface. Ethoxylated alcohols can be used as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, degreasers and emollients in many lines of commercially available products and industrial practices.

They show excellent wetting, emulsifying, low-foaming, detergency, and cleaning properties and are most suitable for household and industrial cleaning, for the textile and leather industry, and in performance chemicals. They are mainly used in cleaning agents, detergents, home care and emulsifier production. Chemicals such as alcohol ethoxylates, SLES and SLS can also be manufactured from methyl esters. Depending on the grade / type of fatty alcohols.

Ethoxylation is an industrial process in which ethylene oxide is added to alcohols and phenols to give surfactants. Alcohol ethoxylates are produced by reacting alcohol with oxirane (ethene oxide). The alcohol could be made from cracked petroleum (via ethane, propane and carbon monoxide) or from vegetable or animal oil and fats.

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