CAS Number: 7488-99-5
Molecular Weight: 536.87
MDL number: MFCD00136012
PubChem Substance ID: 329757647
Empirical Formula: C40H56
Alpha-Carotene may be used as a reference standard in the determination of Alpha-carotene in plasma samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).
Alpha-carotene is very much needed health / the human body, starting from the need for the circulatory system, eye health, to its role which is also part of anti-oxidants.
Alpha-carotene (2.5 μM) significantly inhibited integrin β1-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) which then decreased the phosphorylation of MAPK family.
In summary, the benefits and efficacy of Alpha-carotene on:
Alpha-Carotene is Maintaining a healthy circulatory system.
Alpha-Carotene Prevents heart failure.
-Integumentary System (Skin, Hair, Nails, etc.)
Alpha-Carotene Prevents the occurrence of dry and cracked on the skin of the feet and hands.
Alpha-Carotene Treats acne zits.
-Human Immune System
Alpha-Carotene Acts as an antioxidant.
Alpha-Carotene Counteract various free radicals which can cause oxidative damage in the body.
Alpha-Carotene Helps the vision function.
Alpha-Carotene Prevents the risk of cataract disease.
-Body in General
Alpha-Carotene Prevents the occurrence of cancer.
Alpha-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
Alpha-Carotene is the second most common form of carotene.
Additionally, Alpha-Carotene is a carotenoid, which shows anticarcinogenic activity.
Alpha-Carotene is a natural product found in Adiantum capillus-veneris, Pyrus communis, and other organisms with data available.
Alpha-Carotene is a precursor to creating vitamin A in the body, and while important, is far less common than beta-carotene.
Like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene is fat soluble and therefore needs to be consumed with fat to be absorbed.
For every 24μg of alpha-carotene you consume, you create 1μg vitamin A retinol activity equivalents (RAE).
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin A is 900μg of retinol activity equivalents (RAEs).
While it would be unlikely to attain all your vitamin A from alpha-carotene, we calculate the daily intake target of alpha-carotene to be 24 times the amount of vitamin A (per the conversion to retinol equivalents).
Thus the recommended dietary allowance for alpha-carotene is: 900μg x 24 or 21600μg per day.
Again, you do not actually have to worry about meeting the RDA as beta-carotene, and vitamin A both contribute to the RDA, and the calculated RDA is intended as a guide to compare foods.
Foods high in alpha-carotene include orange vegetables like pumpkin, carrots, and winter squash.
Other alpha-carotene food sources include tangerines, tomatoes, collards, napa cabbage, sweet potatoes, avocados, and bananas.
Alpha-carotene is part of the carotenoid that the human body converts into vitamin A.
Alpha-carotene is often referred to as a precursor of vitamin A, or provitamin A compound.
To note that vitamin A comes from two sources, namely retinoids are derived from animal sources and carotenoids are derived from plants.
Alpha-Carotene belongs to the group of compounds known as carotenoids.
More specifically carotenoids are classified as tetraterpenoids, being built from four terpene units (8 isoprene units) each containing 10 carbon atoms.
As a result, carotenoids typically have a total of 40 carbon atoms.
They are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long-branched alkyl chain.
There are more than 1100 known carotenoids.
Carotenoids can be further categorized into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons and contain no oxygen). Carotenoids are among the most common pigments in nature and are natural lipid soluble antioxidants.
Alpha-Carotene is one of the primary isomers of carotene, although beta-carotene is the most abundant.
There are six known carotene isomers including α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-carotene.
These carotene isomers contain unsubstituted beta-ionone rings, which means they can be readily converted to retinol and vitamin A.
In other words, they have pro-vitamin A activity.
Alpha-Carotene has less vitamin A activity than beta-carotene.
This is because of its structure, as alpha-carotene it is converted to just one molecule of biologically active retinol after central cleavage, while beta-carotene is converted to two molecules after cleavage.
Plants, fungi, and photosynthetic bacteria synthesize carotenes, while animals must obtain them as a dietary nutrient.
In plants carotenes contribute to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy they absorb to chlorophyll.
They also protect plant tissues by helping to absorb the energy from singlet oxygen, an excited form of the oxygen molecule O2 which is formed during photosynthesis. Alpha-Carotene is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble in water, and relatively neutral. alpha-Carotene is found in many common orange-, yellow-, and green-colored fruits and vegetables such as carrots, pumpkins, squash, apricots, sweet potatoes, and beans.
The concentration of alpha-Carotene is especially high in orange carrots and high serum concentrations are associated with high carrot intake.
Other plants and foods that have high levels of alpha-carotene include cloves, shallots, cumin, wolfberries, cantaloupes, papaya, spinach, broccoli, turnip, avocado, green peas, orange and red peppers, and tomatoes.
Alpha-Carotene (along with beta-carotene) exhibits numerous beneficial health or pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-sunburn properties as well as hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and improved vision and night blindness prevention.
Alpha-carotene produces half the vitamin A that beta-carotene does.
Alpha-carotene is found in similar foods to beta-carotene and is often studied in conjunction with that carotenoid, though it is rarer and less well-understood. Recently, scientists have been paying more attention to alpha-carotene, and have found some potential longevity benefits, in addition to the vitamin A goodness alpha-carotene can provide.
A study published in Archives of Internal Medicine found a correlation between alpha-carotene intake and longevity.
Looking at results from the 14-year study, researchers found that high blood levels of alpha-carotene were inversely associated with cancer death, cardiovascular disease and all other illness causes.
The correlation between high levels of alpha-carotene and a lower risk of death from diabetes and lower respiratory disease were especially high.
It is worth noting that because alpha-carotene is not widely available in supplement form, these participants were getting their alpha-carotene from fruits and vegetables.
A Japanese study published in the Journal of Epidemiology found that participants with the highest blood levels of alpha-carotene were less likely to die from heart disease — even less likely than participants with high beta-carotene levels.
Together with lycopene, alpha-carotene was associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a study of two large cohorts published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Good sources of alpha-carotene include pumpkin, carrots, tomatoes, collards, tangerines, winter squash and peas, said Premkumar.
Alpha carotene is the second most abundant form of carotene.
Generally, it contains a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
Also, dietary sources of alpha carotene include yellow-orange vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and winter squash and dark-green vegetables such as broccoli, green beans, green peas, collard, spinach, leaf lettuce, and avocado.
Usually, the serum level of alpha carotene in adult males is 4.22 μg/dL while in adult females, it is 5.31 μg/dL.
Furthermore, alpha carotene has half of the potential of beta carotene to synthesize vitamin A.
Still; it has some potential longevity benefits.
Significantly, the high levels of alpha carotene are associated with cancer death, cardiovascular disease, death from diabetes, etc.
Alpha-Carotene is the second common form of the orange photosynthetic pigment, carotene (β-carotene is the most common), and possesses a β-ring at one end and an ε-ring at the other.
Humans and other mammals can produce retinal (a form of Vitamin A) from the retinyl group(β-ionone ring) of α-carotene, though its activity in this role is less than that of β-carotene, which has two retinyl groups.
Alpha-carotene is found in high concentrations in yellow-orange vegetables, such as carrots and squash, and dark-green vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach.
High blood levels of α-carotene in adults has also been recently linked to lower mortality rates. It is useful as a control for HPLC.
ALPHA-CAROTENE : STRONGER THAN BETA-CAROTENE
The carotenoids, including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lycopene, are vitamin A precursors.
These pigments produce yellow, orange, red, and dark green in fruits and vegetables.
They act as antioxidants, fighting against the damage caused by oxidation, which plays a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and cancers.
However, while alpha-carotene is chemically similar to beta-carotene, several studies seem to demonstrate that alpha-carotene is much more effective in decreasing mortality for certain forms of cancer (lung, prostate, liver, etc.) and reducing the risk of cardiovascular mortality.
Research on the subject tends to show that the higher the alpha-carotene blood concentration, the more the risk of all-cause death diminishes.
IN WHICH VEGETABLES IS ALPHA-CAROTENE FOUND?
Scientists continue to study those results, trying to understand why and at what dose this protection occurs.
However, researchers underline the importance of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, especially that of orange and yellow vegetables, which are particularly rich in this pigment.
So add color to your plate by eating carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin and winter squash, other squash, mandarin oranges, cantaloupe, and apricots.
And don’t forget the red and green vegetables that contain alpha-carotene, too, including beets, broccoli, green beans, peas, green turnips, cabbage, and green salad.
In American and Chinese adults, the mean concentration of serum alpha-carotene was 4.71 μg/dL.
Including 4.22 μg/dL among men and 5.31 μg/dL among women.
The following vegetables are rich in alpha-carotene:
-Yellow-orange vegetables : Carrots (the main source for U.S. adults), Sweet potatoes, Pumpkin, Winter squash.
-Dark-green vegetables : Broccoli, Green beans, Green peas, Spinach, Turnip greens, Collards, Leaf lettuce, Avocado.