CAS NO.: 11029-12-2
EC/LIST NO.: 600-954-3
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue, or black.
In 1835, the German pharmacist Ludwig Clamor Marquart gave the name Anthokyan to a chemical compound that gives flowers a blue color for the first time in his treatise “Die Farben der Blüthen”.
Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black.
Some of the colors of autumn leaves are derived from anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway.
They occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits.
Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding sugars.
They are odorless and moderately astringent.
Although approved to color foods and beverages in the European Union, anthocyanins are not approved for use as a food additive because they have not been verified as safe when used as food or supplement ingredients.
There is no conclusive evidence that anthocyanins have any effect on human biology or diseases
In flowers, the coloration that is provided by anthocyanin accumulation may attract a wide variety of animal pollinators, while in fruits, the same coloration may aid in seed dispersal by attracting herbivorous animals to the potentially-edible fruits bearing these red, blue, or purple colors.
Anthocyanins may have a protective role in plants against extreme temperatures.
Tomato plants protect against cold stress with anthocyanins countering reactive oxygen species, leading to a lower rate of cell death in leaves
Anthocyanins are found in the cell vacuole, mostly in flowers and fruits, but also in leaves, stems, and roots.
In these parts, they are found predominantly in outer cell layers such as the epidermis and peripheral mesophyll cells.
Most frequently occurring in nature are the glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin.
Roughly 2% of all hydrocarbons fixed in photosynthesis are converted into flavonoids and their derivatives, such as the anthocyanins.
Not all land plants contain anthocyanin; in the Caryophyllales (including cactus, beets, and amaranth), they are replaced by betalains.
Anthocyanins and betalains have never been found in the same plant.
Sometimes bred purposely for high anthocyanin quantities, ornamental plants such as sweet peppers may have unusual culinary and aesthetic appeal.
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
Red-fleshed peaches and apples contain anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins are less abundant in banana, asparagus, pea, fennel, pear, and potato, and may be totally absent in certain cultivars of green gooseberries.
The highest recorded amount appears to be specifically in the seed coat of black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) containing approximately 2 g per 100 g, in purple corn kernels and husks, and in the skins and pulp of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.)
Due to critical differences in sample origin, preparation, and extraction methods determining anthocyanin content, the values presented in the adjoining table are not directly comparable.
Nature, traditional agriculture methods, and plant breeding have produced various uncommon crops containing anthocyanins, including blue- or red-flesh potatoes and purple or red broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, and corn.
Garden tomatoes have been subjected to a breeding program using introgression lines of genetically modified organisms (but not incorporating them in the final purple tomato) to define the genetic basis of purple coloration in wild species that originally were from Chile and the Galapagos Islands.
The variety known as "Indigo Rose" became available commercially to the agricultural industry and home gardeners in 2012.
Investing tomatoes with high anthocyanin content doubles their shelf-life and inhibits growth of a post-harvest mold pathogen, Botrytis cinerea.
Some tomatoes also have been modified genetically with transcription factors from snapdragons to produce high levels of anthocyanins in the fruits.
Anthocyanins also may be found in naturally ripened olives, and are partly responsible for the red and purple colors of some olives
Anthocyanins are approved for use as food colorants in the European Union, Australia, and New Zealand, having colorant code E163.
In 2013, a panel of scientific experts for the European Food Safety Authority concluded that anthocyanins from various fruits and vegetables have been insufficiently characterized by safety and toxicology studies to approve their use as food additives.
Extending from a safe history of using red grape skin extract and blackcurrant extracts to color foods produced in Europe, the panel concluded that these extract sources were exceptions to the ruling and were sufficiently shown to be safe.
Anthocyanin extracts are not specifically listed among approved color additives for foods in the United States; however, grape juice, red grape skin and many fruit and vegetable juices, which are approved for use as colorants, are rich in naturally occurring anthocyanins.
No anthocyanin sources are included among approved colorants for drugs or cosmetics.
When esterified with fatty acids, anthocyanins can be used as a lipophilic colorant for foods
Although anthocyanins have been shown to have antioxidant properties in vitro, there is no evidence for antioxidant effects in humans after consuming foods rich in anthocyanins.
Unlike controlled test-tube conditions, the fate of anthocyanins in vivo shows they are poorly-conserved (less than 5%), with most of what is absorbed existing as chemically-modified metabolites that are excreted rapidly.
The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods may not be caused directly by the anthocyanins in the food, but instead, by increased uric acid levels derived from metabolizing flavonoids (anthocyanin parent compounds) in the food.
Anthocyanins is possible that metabolites of ingested anthocyanins are reabsorbed in the gastrointestinal tract from where they may enter the blood for systemic distribution and have effects as smaller molecules.
In a 2010 review of scientific evidence concerning the possible health benefits of eating foods claimed to have "antioxidant properties" due to anthocyanins, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that 1) there was no basis for a beneficial antioxidant effect from dietary anthocyanins in humans, 2) there was no evidence of a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, and 3) there was no evidence generally for consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods having any "antioxidant", "anti-cancer", "anti-aging", or "healthy aging" effects.
following this 2010 review there does not seems to have any substantial clinical trials indicating that dietary anthocyanins have any beneficial physiological effect in humans or lower the risk of any human diseases.
The anthocyanins, anthocyanidins with sugar group(s), are mostly 3-glucosides of the anthocyanidins.
The anthocyanins are subdivided into the sugar-free anthocyanidin aglycones and the anthocyanin glycosides.
As of 2003, more than 400 anthocyanins had been reported, while later literature in early 2006, puts the number at more than 550 different anthocyanins.
The difference in chemical structure that occurs in response to changes in pH, is the reason why anthocyanins often are used as pH indicators, as they change from red in acids to blue in bases through a process called halochromism.
Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group.
The pigments are in glycosylated forms.
Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables.
Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content.
Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins.
Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants.
The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant.
The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure.
In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases.
Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins.
Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects.
Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases.
These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties.
Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling.
Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health.
Anthocyanins are a type of pigment found in plants that are thought to offer health benefits.
They belong to a class of compounds called flavonoids that have antioxidant effects.
This means that they fight unstable molecules, called free radicals, that damage cells and increase the risk of certain diseases.
Some people contend that anthocyanins can also boost the immune system and help fight inflammation, heart disease, viral infections, and even cancer.
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that not only give certain plants their color but also protect the plants against extreme temperatures.
Anthocyanins are natural plant pigments that have beneficial effects for the plant as well as for humans and animals.
Dietary sources of anthocyanins are generally easy to identify due to their red, blue, or purple color.
Examples include berries and red-skinned grapes, apples, and pears and various vegetables such as radishes and red/purple cabbage.
Anthocyanins may also be ingested through their use as a food additive and as dietary supplements, procured as anthocyanin-rich fruit extracts, powders, and purified compounds.
The bioavailability of anthocyanins is considered to be limited; however, recent advances in targeted and nontargeted instrumentation have enhanced our detection capability, indicating that anthocyanin metabolism can be extensive, is complex, and that the full portfolio of anthocyanin metabolites are probably yet to be measured or characterized.
Nonetheless, it is clear that anthocyanin intake is associated with various health benefits as demonstrated in a number of study designs ranging from human epidemiology and clinical trial intervention to screening and mechanistic studies in animals and cell culture models.
Anthocyanin molecular targets include transporters and receptors, second messenger signaling molecules and kinase enzymes, transcription factors, promoters, and growth factors, and a host of oxidant defense enzymes.
Despite the potential broad-spanning biological activities of anthocyanins, safety and toxicological concerns are relatively low.
To date, there are no reports indicating adverse health effects with consumption of anthocyanins (in general) at usual dietary intake levels.
The collective toxicological literature suggests that adverse effects occur only at extremely high levels, although a complete toxicological assessment of anthocyanins is lacking (EFSA, 2013).
Overall, anthocyanin ingestion through food is unlikely to present a safety concern and may, in fact, impart health benefits.
Currently, there is no recommended intake level of anthocyanins to consume for optimal health or to avoid adverse effects (UL).
Future anthocyanins research and continued consumer interest in anthocyanin-containing foods and products with health benefits will undoubtedly present opportunities for pursuing dietary guidance recommendations.
Anthocyanins are a group of natural occurring pigments responsible for the red-blue colour of many fruits and vegetables.
Anthocyanins are of interest for two reasons because they cannot only be used in the technological field as natural colorants but also have important implications in the field of human health.
Numerous studies indicate the potential effect that this family of flavonoids may have in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, hyperlipidemias and other chronic diseases through the intake of anthocyanin-rich foods.
This review examines existing literature in this area: from plant content and distribution to health implications, including the effect of agronomic and genetic modifications on the anthocyanin content of plants as well as other biotechnological factors and food processing.
The bioavailability, metabolism, bioactivity, and epidemiology of anthocyanins will also be reviewed.
Anthocyanins are flavonoids in fruits and vegetables that render them vivid red to blue.
To date, there have been more than 635 anthocyanins identified in nature, featuring six common aglycones and various types of glycosylations and acylations.
Dietary consumption of anthocyanins is high compared to other flavonoids, owing to their wide distribution in plant materials.
Based upon many cell-line studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, it has been suggested that anthocyanins possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity, cardiovascular disease prevention, obesity control, and diabetes alleviation properties, all of which are more or less associated with their potent antioxidant property.
Evidence suggests that absorption of anthocyanins occurs in the stomach and small intestine.
Epithelial tissue uptake seems to be highly efficient, yet transportation into circulation, tissue distribution, and urine excretion are very limited.
The bioactivity of bioavailable anthocyanins should be a focus of future research regarding their putative health-promoting effects.
Anthocyanins are water-soluble naturally occurring pigments that are therapeutically beneficial and that have gained considerable interests by researchers in the field of phytopharmaceuticals and pharmacology.
The evidence based scientific reports on the potential and efficacy of anthocyanins has caused an upsurge in their testing in clinical trials and formulation of herbal drug supplements since the past few decades.
Their structural attributes enable them to be absorbed and react with various biomolecules in the human body, to provide beneficial physiological benefits.
The anthocyanins are 2-phenylbenzopyrylium derivatives of dietary phenolics and exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and protective effects against metabolic and cardiovascular conditions.
The metabolism of anthocyanins and their stability in-vivo in human body and during post-harvest storage still needs extensive investigation to fully explore their benefits.
In the present chapter, we discuss the chemistry, medicinal uses in folklore/traditional medicine and the natural sources of their occurrence.
The pre-clinical, clinical and pharmaceutical applications are also discussed, to emphasize the consumer demands and medicinal value of anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins are water-soluble scarlet, magenta, purple and blue pigments that colour the fruit and flowers of many plants.
They also provide the red colours of many autumn leaves.
They are flavonoids, formed by phenylpropanoid metabolism from phenylalanine.
In addition to colouring specific plant organs, often to attract pollinators and dispersers, they may serve to protect photosynthetic tissues from oxidative stress induced by light under stressful conditions.
They are synthesised by gymnosperms and most angiosperms except the Caryophyllales (beets, cacti, Bougainvillia, Amaranthus), which synthesise the unrelated betalain pigments from tyrosine instead.
anthocyanin, major class of red to blue flavonoid pigments that are extensively represented in plants.
Anthocyanins are water-soluble and are found in the vacuoles of plant cells.
A typical anthocyanin pigment appears red in acid, violet in neutral, and blue in alkaline solution.
Thus, the blue cornflower, the bordeaux red cornflower, the deep red dahlia, and the red rose contain the same anthocyanin, the variation in colour resulting from the different degrees of acidity and alkalinity of the cell sap.
More than one anthocyanin may be present in a flower, and the colours of many flowers are caused by the presence of both anthocyanins and plastid pigments in the tissues.
Moreover, small genetic changes in varieties or species may be associated with the development of different anthocyanins.
In addition to the important role they play in attracting pollinators and seed dispersers through the coloration of flowers and fruits, anthocyanins are largely responsible for the red colouring of buds and young shoots and the purple and purple-red colours of autumn leaves.
The red colour becomes apparent when the green chlorophyll decomposes with the approach of winter.
Intense light and low temperatures favour the development of anthocyanin pigments.
Some leaves and flowers lose anthocyanins on reaching maturity; others gain in pigment content during development.
Often an excess of sugars exists in leaves when anthocyanins are abundant.
Injury to individual leaves may be instrumental in causing the sugar excess in such cases.
Anthocyanins also occur in roots (e.g., beets) and occasionally in larval and adult flies and in true bugs (Heteroptera).
Anthocyanins are natural colorants which have raised a growing interest due to their extensive range of colours, innocuous and beneficial health effects.
Despite the great potential of application that anthocyanins represent for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, their use has been limited because of their relative instability and low extraction percentages.
Currently, most investigations on anthocyanins are focused on solving these problems, as well as their purification and identification.
In this paper, the most recent advances in the chemical investigation of the anthocyanins are summarised, emphasising the effects of pH, co-pigmentation, metal ion complexation and antioxidant activity on their stability.
Anthocyanins are polyphenols with known antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some biological activities including the prevention or lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis and cancer.
Nevertheless such properties, their stability and bioavailability depend on their chemical structure.
In the present work a brief review is made on chemical structures, bioavailability and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory of anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins are obtained by maceration or extraction with sulphited water, acidified water, carbon dioxide, methanol or ethanol from the strains of vegetables and edible fruits, with subsequent concentration and/or purification if necessary.
Anthocyanins contain common components of the source material, namely anthocyanine, organic acids, tannins, sugars, minerals etc., but not necessarily in the same proportions as found in the source material.
Blackcurrant extract is obtained from blackcurrant pomace by aqueous extraction.
The main coloring principles are four anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside).
Grape skin extract occurs as a red to purple powder or liquid concentrate.
Anthocyanins is prepared by aqueous extraction of grape marc remaining from the pressing of grapes to obtain juice.
The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from Concord grapes or a dehydrated water soluble powder prepared from the aqueous solution.
Butterfly pea flower extract is a dark blue liquid prepared by the aqueous extraction of dried butterfly pea flowers from Clitoria ternatea and contains anthocyanins as the principal coloring component.
Anto are pigments that know well in water and give many fruits, vegetables and flowers blue, red and purple.
There were over 200 different anthocyanins in the world today.
The color of most anthocyanins is displayed as an indicator of the pH of the clothes.
Anthocyanins turns purple-red at low pH values and green-blue at higher pH values.
The hue of anthocyanins is weakened.
The pigment that gives color to the land animal plant is anthocyanin.
Anthocyanins is an acidic life-giving pigment.
Anthocyanins, color choices according to pH.
pH<5 full of red color, neutral pH value purple, pH>9 blue.
Sources of some anthocyanins in nature; red grape skin, purple sweet potato, elderberry, red radish, red cabbage.
According to the Turkish Food Codex, there is no restriction on its use.
Anthocyanins are used in the food industry to impart a very red color.
They are used in users for their antioxidant properties.
Sector of the food industry:
Confectionery products, milk and dairy products, products, fruit desserts, sweets, canned fruit, jam, jelly, marmalade, breakfast products, exemplary fish and aquatic products, fruit and vegetable preparations are used. .
Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments found in the plant kingdom.
The benefits of polyphenols are known from brain health to heart health, from diabetes to some cancer types
Anthocyanins give plants (especially some vegetables and fruits that we know) their red, blue, purple and even black colors.
For plants, anthocyanins have a significant effect on their reproduction as they attract pollinators such as bees and seed dispersers.
However, their effects are not only limited to this, they also provide protection against abiotic and biotic stress factors, thanks to their strong antioxidant properties
Anthocyanins are an important class of flavonoids that form an important part of the secondary metabolites of plants.
Since they are water-soluble pigments, they are mostly located in cell vacuoles and the color they give to the plant is affected by the environment in the vacuole.
More than 600 anthocyanins have been identified in nature so far
The most common anthocyanins in plants are pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin, which are six common anthocyanide derivatives
Although the benefits of anthocyanin are quite high, it is gaining popularity and remarkable studies are just beginning to be heard.
In this article, you'll see some scientific evidence-based results on the benefits of anthocyanins.
Before we dive into why anthocyanins change color, it’s important to know what they are.
Anthocyanins are natural, water soluble pigments responsible for the blue, purple, pink, and red colors in many fruit and vegetable sources.
In the food coloring industry, they are typically extracted from sources such as purple corn, purple carrots, radishes, elderberries, and other fruits and vegetables that are bred specifically for their high pigment concentrations.
When used in an application with a lower pH, like confections or beverages, anthocyanins will appear bright red to pink.
But when that same anthocyanin is put in an application that has a higher pH, such as a cupcake or its frosting, the anthocyanin will appear bluish-purple.
But what is causing this color shift? Why can’t the anthocyanin color work the same in every application?
Anthocyanins all has to do with the natural reaction the molecule has to the pH of its surrounding environment.
Anthocyanins are a class of molecules pervasive in plants that are responsible for the showy bright purple, red, and blue colors of flowers and variegated leaves.
Anthocyanins are located in the vacuoles of cells, and different genes control the particular shades of colors.
Aside from their coloration, anthocyanin molecules are also active in plant defense mechanisms against insect and fungal attacks and in the recognition of nitrogen-fixing bacteria by leguminous plants (providing a molecule that attracts the bacteria).
Approximately twenty genes are involved in the formation of the anthocyanin molecule with various amendments , such as hydroxyl groups or glucose alterations, to vary the coloration and cause the molecule to function in a particular way.
In maize, there are two major types of genes, regulatory and structural, that control the formation of the anthocyanin molecule used to give the corn kernel its color.
The variegated Indian corn is caused by an interruption of the color formation by an insert in one of these genes, thus releasing the gene to form color.
Anthocyanin and anthocyanidins are considered to be elements of plant pigments found in higher plants of the plant kingdom.
They are found mainly in fruits and flowers but also in leaves, stems, and roots.
They belong to the category of bioflavonoids.
They share a common structure; the flavylium ion.
Anthocyanidins are sugar-free analogues to anthocyanins whilst anthocyanins are formed by the coupling of sugars to anthocyanidins.
This is the key difference between anthocyanin and anthocyanidin.
Anthocyanins, named for the Greek words for “flower” and “blue,” are part of the flavonoid group of plant compounds.
Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are beneficial to the plants: they appear to protect them from the damage of ultraviolet light and other environmental stressors.
Dietary antioxidants such as anthocyanins, have been found to have the ability to neutralize free radicals and help prevent cell damage.
They are healthy for plants, and research indicates that including anthocyanin-rich foods in our diets is healthy for us, too.
We get anthocyanins from a variety of foods, and the easiest way to locate them is by color.
As pigments, they’re easy to spot—unlike most other plant compounds. When you see red, purple or blue-hued fruits and vegetables, you know they contain anthocyanins.
Berries and their juices contain the most anthocyanins, and Wild Blueberries, in particular, contain a wide range of anthocyanins, and have 33% more total anthocyanins than regular blueberries*.
In fact, a study that examined the anthocyanin content of 24 foods found that Wild Blueberries provide significantly more total anthocyanins than other commonly consumed berries in the US including cultivated blueberries.
Some other foods that contain anthocyanins include red cabbage, purple potatoes, purple cauliflower, elderberries, black currants, purple carrots, eggplant, red onions, plums, and figs.
Anthocyanins are also known as anthocyanins.
This term is derived from Greek words Anthos which means flower and Kyanous which means dark blue.
Anthocyanins are a subgroup of flavonoids, therefore they are polyphenols, which is responsible for giving plants their distinctive colours.
These pigments are soluble in water. They are found in the vacuolar sap of the epidermal tissues of fruits and flowers.
The pink, red, and purple colours of berries, red apples, cherries, red grapes, red lettuce, eggplant, onions or red cabbage.
Along with carotenoids, they are responsible for autumn leaf colour.
Also, anthocyanins attract animals when once the fruit is ready to eat or when a flower is ready for pollination.
They are responsible for the colours of most of the vegetables, petals, cereals such as black rice, and fruits.
Anthocyanidin, being a type of bio-flavonoid, is a chemical compound which is responsible for pigmentation of plants.
They are sugar-free analogues of anthocyanins which are based on flavylium ion.
Here, the counter ion is mainly chloride and this positive charge differentiates the anthocyanidins from other flavonoids.
Anthocyanidins are considered as antioxidant flavonoid pigments that give a purple or red colour to the fruits and vegetables such as grapes, cherries, raspberries, blueberries, plums, beets and purple cabbage.
Anthocyanins also gives bright colours to flowers.
This helps to attract various agents of pollination towards the flower.
Plants also maintain their matured progeny due to the pigmentation provided by anthocyanidins.
Anthocyanidins provide protection to the photosynthetic tissues in plants from direct sunlight.
Anthocyanins are a type of flavonoid, a family of powerful antioxidants that fight the effects of aging and oxidative stress.
To date, more than 635 different anthocyanins have been identified.
What is the color of anthocyanins, and what does this tell us about where we can find them?
The definition of anthocyanins is “blue, violet, or red flavonoid pigments found in plants.”
In regard to anthocyanin’s structure, anthocyanins are water-soluble, glycoside pigments that can vary in color depending on their specific pH.
The exact type of anthocyanin that a fruit or veggie contains is partially what determines how deeply red, purple, violet, blue or even orange it will be.
This is one reason why the same food, such as eggplants or onions, can come in many different shades.
Here’s the cool thing about most antioxidants: Not only do they benefit you when you eat them, but they also benefit the plants that contain them too.
Plants produce phytochemicals like anthocyanin as a protective mechanism; phytochemicals help build plants’ resistance and protect them from being destroyed.
For example, anthocyanin can offer a plant protection from being eaten by predators (like bugs, birds or rodents) and from environmental stressors like ultraviolet light, cold temperatures and drought.
IUPAC NAME :
(1E)-1-(Hydroxyimino)aceton [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(1E)-1-(Hydroxyimino)acetone [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(1E)-1-(Hydroxyimino)acétone [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]