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CAS NUMBER: 8015-80-3




IUPAC NAME: candlenut oil

Candlenut is a flowering tree in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, also known as candleberry, Indian walnut, kemiri, varnish tree, nuez de la India, buah keras, godou, kukui nut tree, and rata kekuna.
Candlenuts (Aleurites moluccana) are a relative of Macadamia nuts and resemble them in appearance and in texture. 
They have a hard furrowed shell and the nuts are yellow, waxy, and brittle, much like their Macadamia cousins. 

They are so named because they used to be used to make candles. 
The name is sometimes rendered as two separate words, candle nuts.

They are pounded or ground into a paste before being added to curries, stews, or gravies to act as a thickener and binder, and to give a creamy texture. 
They have a taste similar to Macadamias, except for a slight bitterness which is helped by cooking, and the addition of a little sugar, if needed.

Candlenuts go rancid very quickly and must be used as soon as possible, and kept in the refrigerator or freezer.
Candlenuts are called buah keras in Malay, and kemiri in Indonesian.

This tropical Southeast Asian tree is in the Euphorbiaceae or “spurge” family, and is native to Malaysia, Polynesia, Malay Peninsula, the Philippines, and the South Sea Islands. 
The tree was also brought long ago to Hawaii by Polynesians, and it today Hawaii’s official tree.
Candlenut is now found in a wide distribution throughout the tropics and is found as far south as Australia and New Zealand.

The candlenut grows to a height of up to 30 m (98 ft), with wide spreading or pendulous branches. 
The leaves are pale green, simple, and ovate or heart-shaped on mature shoots, but may be three-, five-, or seven-lobed on saplings.
They are up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 13 cm (5.1 in) wide and young leaves are densely clothed in rusty or cream stellate hairs. 
Petioles measure up to 12.5 cm (4.9 in) long and stipules about 5 mm (0.20 in).

Flowers are small—male flowers measure around 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter, female flowers about 9 mm (0.35 in).
The fruit is a drupe about 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) in diameter with one or two lobes; each lobe has a single soft, white, oily, kernel contained within a hard shell which is about 2 cm (0.79 in) in diameter.
The kernel is the source of Candlenut oil.

How are Candlenuts Used In Food?
Candlenuts are usually roasted in the shell before the kernels are removed. 
They are difficult to get out of the shell, so they will tend to be available at Asian markets or can be purchased online. 
They are used most extensively in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Hawaii. 
As above, they are principally used ground as a thickener but are also sometimes used chopped and sauteed.

In Indonesia, kemiri is considered an indespencable spice, where a relish made with candlenuts and chiles is called sambal bajak.
In Hawaii, roasted and pounded candlenuts are mixed with salt and used as a relish called inamona. Chile peppers are sometimes added.
A popular Malaysian dish which features candlenut is an Indian-influenced curry known as kapitan.

What Can You Substitute for Candlenuts?
Other oil-rich nuts can be substituted for candlenuts. The obvious substitute would be macadamia nuts. Almonds or cashews can also be used in their place.

How Were the Nuts Used as Candles?
Candlenuts have such a high oil content that they simply burn like a candle on their own. 
In Malasia, Indonesia, and in Hawaii, many nuts would be strung on the ribs from palm leaves. 
The top nut could be lit and it would burn for at least two or three minutes, while dripping oil onto the nut below it, causing it to light, and repeated the process, so that the whole string of nuts slowly burned like a candle.

Other Uses:
*resin from the tree used to treat Hawaiian fishing nets

*oil from green candlenuts used to seal wounds

*the shells were used for traditional Hawaiian jewelry, such as bracelets. A candlenut lei is considered a very special gift.

*soot from burning candlenuts was used as a tattoo ink

*oil used as a laxative

Other Names:

*Indian walnut


*candleberry (not exclusive)

*varnish tree


Women in East Timor are preparing candlenut sticks to illuminate a local festival
Both the nut and the oil that can be extracted from it are used. 
the nut is appreciated in many cultures once cooked or toasted. 
In Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine, it is commonly used in curries, and on the Indonesian island of Java, it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice.
In the Philippines, the fruit and tree are traditionally known as lumbang, after which Lumban, a lakeshore town in Laguna province, is named. 
Before the intrusion of non-native species, it was frequently used as a property-line manager, because its silvery underleaf makes the tree easy to distinguish from a distance.

In the state of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, the Dusun tribes call the fruit as godou and are used in tattoo-making as an optional ingredient for the ink.
A Hawaiian condiment known as ʻinamona is made from roasted kukui (candlenuts) mixed into a paste with salt. 
Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke.
In ancient Hawaiʻi, kukui nuts were burned to provide light. 
The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib, lit on one end, and burned one by one every fifteen minutes or so. 
This led to their use as a measure of time. 
Hawaiians extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light, darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth.
Hawaiians had many other uses for the tree, including leis from the shells, leaves, and flowers; ink for tattoos from charred nuts; a varnish with the oil; and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections, giving them greater underwater visibility. 
A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). 
A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets).
The nohona waʻa (seats), pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood.
The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing.
Kukui was named the state tree of Hawaii on 1 May 1959 due to its multitude of uses.
It also represents the island of Molokaʻi, whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf.
As recently as 1993 on the outlying islands of the kingdom of Tonga, candlenuts were chewed into sweet-scented emollient used during a traditional funerary ritual. 
They were used for making various sweet-smelling oils for the skin.

In Australia, Aboriginal Australians used them for a variety of similar purposes.
In Uganda, the seed is referred to as kabakanjagala, meaning "the king loves me".
In Fiji, this nut is called sikeci and its oil is used in cosmetic products.

Candlenuts are often used in curries or stew when it comes to Malaysian, Indonesian or even Singaporean cuisines. 
The high content of oil in candlenuts contributes to the gravy being thicker in curries and stews. 

Candlenuts are added into the chilli pastes of curries to make the dish thicker, creamier and slightly oilier. 
The presence of glutamic acid in candlenuts gives a dish the hint of nutty flavour. 
The mild bitterness in the candlenuts disappears upon cooking.

Called candle nut because of their high oil content, the oil has been extracted for making lamp oil. 
Candle nuts look similar to macadamia nuts, however their taste is quite different.

The candlenut (Aleurites moluccanus) is a flowering tree and is also known as candleberry, Indian walnut, kemiri, varnish tree, nuez de la India, buah keras, godou or kukui nut tree, and Kekuna tree. 
The tree grows to a height of 15-25 metres, with wide spread branches and pale green leaves. 

The nut is round, about 4-6 centimetres in diameter and has a hard, furrowed shell. 
On the inside is a whitish yellow, waxy and fleshy kernel which is the source of oil. 

One candlenut fruit can have one to two seeds inside it.
Candlenuts are usually roasted in their shell before the kernels are removed and both the nut and the extracted oil can be used

Benefits of Candlenut:
Candlenuts boast a variety of health benefits and have been used as natural medicine for centuries. 
They’re rich in potassium and protein, and contain small amounts of zinc, copper and selenium. 
Below are just some of their health benefits:

*Improved digestive system
Candlenuts contain high amounts of fiber which is beneficial for the GI tract. 
Candlenut promotes regular bowel movement and helps with constipation, as the oil is a mild laxative.

*Improve heart health
Candlenuts help to increase the levels of HDL or ‘good cholesterol’ in the body, so are very beneficial for people who suffer from high cholesterol. 
Candlenuts also have a high potassium content, which is known for its ability to lower blood pressure.

*Overcome insomnia
People who suffer from insomnia or have trouble sleeping often find that candlenut works well in helping them fall asleep better. 
This is because candlenut contains melatonin, a hormone associated with control of the sleep-wake cycle.

*Healthy joints and bones
Regular consumption of candlenuts helps to prevent aches in joints and bones from everyday wear and tear. 
It’s also effective in relieving joint stiffness from arthritis. 
Candlenuts contain phosphorus which works together with calcium and vitamin D in your body to keep your bones healthy and strong.

Candlenut is actually a nut of a flowering tree in the genus Aleurites belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. 
They are a relative of Macadamia nuts and resemble them in appearance and in texture. 
Candlenut have a hard furrowed shell and the nuts are yellow, waxy, and brittle, much like their Macadamia cousins. 

Candlenut is native to Indo-Malaysia region. 
Candlenut is grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world such as Malaysia, Indonesia as well as some parts of Australia. 

Health benefits:
-Candlenuts are good sources of fiber, which improves digestive functioning.

-They reduce the risk of heart disease.

-They help to treat tooth ache.

Common Names:
-Indian walnut
-Bankul nut tree 
-Indonesian walnut 
-Kukui nut 
-Moluccan oil tree 
-Tallow tree 
-Buah Keras 
-Otaheite walnut
-Belgaum walnut

Candlenut (also known by Aleurites Moluccanus) is actually a flowering tree in the genus Aleurites belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae
Candlenut is also commonly known as Indian walnut.

Candlenut is a medium sized, perennial, evergreen, upper-canopy tree that grows about 10–47 m tall. 
The plant thrives best in a warm, humid tropical environment. 

Candlenut is common in wet secondary forest at the margins or along stream and along the seashore. 
Candlenut will also thrive in a semi dry to wet subtropical forest climate and in areas. 

Candlenut trees grow on a wide variety of soils which includes acidic soils, sandy soils, red loamy soils, limestone and stony clay soils. 
They are not fond of alkaline soils. 

However, they can tolerate soils which are neutral to slightly alkaline. 
The soil should be moist and well drained.

These trees also have a good tolerance for infertile soils. 
The plant has straight and cylindrical bole and can be up to 70 – 150 cm in diameter. 
Bark is grey-brown to blackish colored.

Candle nut tree has both medicinal as well as edible uses. 
They are quite popular due to their culinary uses. 

The high oil content in the nuts makes them suitable for edible uses. 
Candlenut is generally used to thicken Asian dishes. 

The oils may also be used as lamp oil to be used as a source of light. 
Listed below are few of the health benefits of candle nuts

Candlenut can Soluble in:
*dimethicone, cloudy
*glycerin, cloudy
*isopropyl myristate
*mineral oil
*propylene glycol, cloudy
*sorbitol, cloudy
*soybean oil
*sunflower oil

Candlenut is Insoluble in:
*propylene glycol

The oil has a reputation as a moisturiser for soothing dry skin and alleviating the symptoms of psoriasis, properties that ensure kukui nut oil has a place in many bodycare preparations. 
Kukui nut oil is known as a purgative and has been used like castor oil.

Indonesian oil obtained from Aleurites moluccana nuts, well-known as Kukui or Candle nuts. 
Production of this virgin oil in Sulawesi Island uses eco-responsible methods.


aleurites moluccana seed oil
aleurites triloba seed oil
candle nut oil
candlenut oil
jatropha moluccana seed oil
kemiri oil
kendi oil
kukui nut oil
nikkol kukui nut oil
oil expressed from nuts of the candle nut tree, aleurites moluccana, euphorbiaceae
oils, candlenut

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