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CAS Number: 8004-92-0
ECHA InfoCard: 100.116.526
EC Number: 305-897-5
E number: E104 (colours)
PubChem: 24671


E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is used as a greenish yellow food additive in certain countries, designated in Europe as the E number E104.
In the EU and Australia, E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is permitted in beverages and is used in foods, like sauces, decorations, and coatings. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is not listed as a permitted food additive in Canada or the US, where it is permitted in medicines and cosmetics and is known as D&C Yellow.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a yellow, water-soluble, anionic quinophthalone dye. 
This synthetic dye, E 104 (Quinoline yellow), is generally used as a food additive. 
Its applications are also seen in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a chinophthalon derivative applied in the compositions of skin, lips, or body cosmetics.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is acid yellow 3 colorant. 
The product, E 104 (Quinoline yellow), is suitable for shampoos, shower- & bubble baths, deodorant and toothpaste.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) can be used to color cosmetics, drugs, and food, including dietary supplements, sauces, soups and broths, bakery, dairy fats and oil, seafood, seasonings, breath fresheners, desserts, and convenient foods, and beverages.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is used to give food a greenish-yellow/lemon-lime colour.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a bright greenish-yellow, water soluble dye. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a mixture of the sodium salts of the mono- and disulfonic acids of 2-[2-quinolinyl]-1H-indene-1,3 [2H]-dione consisting principally of the sodium salt hydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-indene-2-yl]-6-quinolinesulfonic acid and 2-[2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-indene-2yl]-8-quinolinesulfonic acid with lesser amounts of the disodium salts of the disulfonic acids of 2-[2-quinolinyl]-1H-indene-1,3[2H]-dione.

Typical applications for E 104 (Quinoline yellow) include beverages, confectionery, meat, bakery, dairy fats and oil, seafood, snacks, dry mixes and seasonings, fruit preparation, convenient food, flavors, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.


E 104 (Quinoline yellow) WS is a mixture of organic compounds derived from the dye Quinoline Yellow SS (spirit soluble). 
Owing to the presence of sulfonate groups, the WS dyes are water-soluble (WS). 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a mixture of disulfonates (principally), monosulfonates and trisulfonates of 2-(2-quinolyl)indan-1,3-dione with a maximum absorption wavelength of 416 nm.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a yellow, water-soluble, anionic quinophthalone dye. 
This synthetic dye, E 104 (Quinoline yellow), is generally used as a food additive. 
Its applications are also seen in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a chinophthalon derivative applied in the compositions of skin, lips, or body cosmetics.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an exposure assessment of E 104 (Quinoline yellow), taking into account additional information on its use in foods. 
In 2009, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of E 104 (Quinoline yellow) and concluded that, at the maximum usage levels, refined intake estimates were generally well above the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. 
Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 was amended by the European Commission as regards the conditions of use such that Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs), when not withdrawn (n = 14), were decreased by a factor of 1.1 to 50, depending on the food category, applicable from 1 June 2013 onwards. 
Following this, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. 
Data on the presence of E 104 (Quinoline yellow) in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and analytical data. 

Usage levels were provided to EFSA for 6 out of 28 food categories in which E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is authorised. 
In addition, 6 266 analytical results were reported. 
Following the amendment of Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008, exposure estimates for E 104 (Quinoline yellow) presented in this statement were based on the currently authorised MPLs and analytical levels combined with food consumption data from the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. 

Three scenarios were considered: (1) exposure estimates based on MPLs, (2) a refined brand-loyal exposure scenario and (3) a refined non-brand-loyal exposure scenario. Mean and high-level exposure estimates of E 104 (Quinoline yellow) were below the ADI for all population groups in all three scenarios.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is an artificial dye. 
Additionally, E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a yellow, viscous liquid that is soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is used as a coloring agent in foods and beverages.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) occurs a yellow powder or granules and is manufactured by sulfonating 2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) can be converted to a corresponding aluminum lake.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is prepared by sulfonating 2-(2-quinolyl) indan-1,3-dione or a mixture containing about two thirds 2-(2-quinolyl)indane-1,3-dione and one third 2-(2-(6-methylquinolyl))indane-1,3-dione. 

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) consists essentially of sodium salts of a mixture of disulfonates (principally), monosulfonates and trisulfonates of the above compound and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components.
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is described as the sodium salt. 
The calcium and the potassium salt are also permitted.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a yellow food dye. 
Moreover, E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is more commonly known as E104 in terms of E numbers.
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is used as a pigment for tattoos.

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) is a food colorant that induces a dull yellow, or greenish yellow colour. 
E 104 (Quinoline yellow) can be found in ices, cough sweets, scotch eggs and smoked haddock.

Health effects

E 104 (Quinoline yellow) WS has not been associated with any significant long-term toxicity, is not genotoxic or carcinogenic and there is no evidence of adverse effects on reproduction or development.
Food colorants in general have been the subject of much scrutiny for their effect on health.

Possible cause of hyperactivity

Since the 1970s and the well-publicized advocacy of Benjamin Feingold, there has been public concern that food colorings may cause ADHD-like behavior in children.
These concerns have led the U.S. FDA and other food safety authorities to regularly review the scientific literature, and led the UK FSA to commission a study by researchers at the University of Southampton to assess the effect of a mixture of six food dyes (Tartrazine, Allura Red, Ponceau 4R, Quinoline Yellow WS, Sunset Yellow FCF and Carmoisine (dubbed the "Southampton 6")) and sodium benzoate (a preservative) on children in the general population, who consumed them in beverages.

The study found "a possible link between the consumption of these artificial colours and a sodium benzoate preservative and increased hyperactivity" in the children; the advisory committee to the FSA that evaluated the study also determined that because of study limitations, the results could not be extrapolated to the general population, and further testing was recommended".

The European regulatory community, with a stronger emphasis on the precautionary principle, required labelling and temporarily reduced the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for the food colorings; the UK FSA called for voluntary withdrawal of the colorings by food manufacturers.
However, in 2009 the EFSA re-evaluated the data at hand and determined that "the available scientific evidence does not substantiate a link between the color additives and behavioral effects".
On the basis of other evidence the EFSA also reduced the acceptable daily intake (ADI) from 10 to 0.5 mg/kg.

The US FDA did not make changes following the publication of the Southampton study, but following a citizen petition filed by the Center for Science in the Public Interest in 2008, requesting the FDA ban several food additives, the FDA commenced a review of the available evidence, and still made no changes.

No evidence supports broad claims that food coloring causes food intolerance and ADHD-like behavior in children.
It is possible that certain food coloring may act as a trigger in those who are genetically predisposed, but the evidence is weak.

First Aid    

First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. 
Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. 
Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. 
IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. 

IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. 
Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment. 

IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. 
If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. 
Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. 
Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing. 

If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. 
Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. 
If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. 
IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.


Quinoline Yellow
Solvent yellow 33
11641 Yellow
Erio Chinoline Yellow 4G
Quinoline Yellow 2SF
D and C Yellow No. 11
D & C Yellow no. 11
D&C Yellow No 11
D & C Yellow 11
D and C Yellow 11
NSC 18950
1H-Indene-1,3(2H)-dione, 2-(2-quinolinyl)-
Quinoline Yellow (C.I. 47000)
D&C Yellow No. 11
1H-Indene-1, 2-(2-quinolinyl)-
trisodium hydrogen bis(2-(1,3-dioxo-5-sulfonato-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)quinoline-8-sulfonate)

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