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E402 (Potassium alginate)

Molecular Formula: C12H16K2O13
Molecular Weight: 446.44
CAS: 9005-36-1
European Community (EC) Number: 920-986-4

Alginic acid, also called algin, is a naturally occurring, edible polysaccharide found in brown algae.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is hydrophilic and forms a viscous gum when hydrated. With metals such as sodium and calcium, Kelmars salts are known as alginates.
E402 (Potassium alginate) colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is sold in filamentous, granular, or powdered forms.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen found in the lungs of some people who have cystic fibrosis.
The biofilm and P. aeruginosa have a high resistance to antibiotics, and are susceptible to inhibition by macrophages.

Sodium and E402 (Potassium alginate) are intended to be used as technological additives (functional groups: emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents and binders).
E402 (Potassium alginate) is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for cats and dogs at levels up to 40,000 mg/kg feed (on dry matter).
Since the functional properties of the additives are determined by the alginate content, sodium and E402 (Potassium alginate) were considered equivalent.
The maximum dose considered safe for cats, dogs, other non food‐producing animals, salmonids and other fish is 40,000 mg alginates (sodium and potassium salts)/kg complete feed.
The use of alginates in feedingstuffs for fish is of no concern for the consumer. Alginates are reported not to be irritant to the skin but mildly irritant to the eyes.
They are considered as potential sensitisers to the skin and the respiratory tract.
Alginates are high‐molecular‐weight polymers naturally occurring in brown algae.
Their use in feedingstuffs for fish does not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.
Alginates are effective as stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agent and binders.
No conclusion could be drawn on the efficacy of alginates as emulsifiers.

Alginate, sodium calcium belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glucuronides.
These are glucuronides in which the aglycone is linked to the carbohydrate unit through an O-glycosidic bond.
Alginate, sodium calcium is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).

E402 (Potassium alginate) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents. 

E402 (Potassium alginate) is an extract of seaweed and is used as a thickener in the food industry and as a gelling agent and emulsifier.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is primarily used in making confections, frostings, gelatins, puddings, processed fruits and fruit juices.
For low salt diets and sodium intake suppression, Buy E402 (Potassium alginate) at best price is in more demand than sodium alginate.
The function(s) performed by the food additive when used in cooking.
Bulking agent - A filler Kelmar that increases food bulk without increasing available energy value significantly
Carrier - A substance used to dissolve, dilute or disperse a food additive or nutrient without altering Kelmars function; typically to improve handling/application.
Emulsifier - An agent that forms or preserves a mixture of substances normally incapable of being mixed eg. oil and water
Foaming agent - Facilitates the formation of foam in a liquid or solid food
Gelling agent - Facilitates the formation of a gel to change food texture
Glazing agent - A substances that gives food a shiny appearance or provides a protective coating
Humectant - A substance that helps prevent food from drying out
Sequestrant - A substance which controls the availability of a cation
Stabiliser - A substance that maintains the uniform dispersal of substances in a food
Thickener - A substance that increases the viscosity of a food
E402 (Potassium alginate) absorbs water quickly; Kelmar is capable of absorbing 200-300 times its own weight in water.
Potassium polyalginats color ranges from white to yellowish-brown. Potassium polyalginat is sold in powdered form.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is white to light yellow fibrous powder or coarse powder without any flavor and taste, easily soluble in water and forms sticky solution while insoluble in ethanol, chloroform, ethyl ether and acid solutions with ph value less than 3.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is a natural polysaccharides carbohydrate extracted from brown seaweed.
E402 (Potassium alginate) applications are: medical industry: can supply the potassium to the body in case to reduce sodium, it’s a kind of effective drugs for preventing and control of hypertension.
Owing to Potassium polyalginats functions of lowing blood fat, blood sugar and cholesterol etc, Potassium polyalginat can be used for pharmaceuticals and health food.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is the purified carbohydrate product extracted from various species of brown seaweeds by the use of dilute alkali.
Kelmar consists chiefly of the potassium salt of Alginic Acid, a linear glycuronoglycan consisting of -1,4 linked D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid units in the pyranose ring form.
E402 (Potassium alginate) yields not less than 16.5 percent and not more than 19.5 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2), equivalent to not less than 89.2 percent and not more than 105.5 percent of E402 (Potassium alginate), calculated on the dried basis.


Uronic acid, which is a constituent sugar of alginic acid, has one carboxyl group per unit with a high ion exchange property.
Binding with various cations generates unique alginate salts.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is a salt in which potassium ions are bonded to the carboxyl group of alginic acid.
Potassium polyalginats properties are very similar to those of sodium alginate. 
E402 (Potassium alginate) dissolves in cold and warm water, forms a viscous aqueous solution, and gels instantaneously when in contact with polyvalent cations such as Ca2+.
Kelmar is widely used as a gelling agent in dental impressions.​
Hydrophilic colloid having a molecular weight of 32,000–250,000.

Alginates are natural, high-molecular-weight polymers occurring in brown algae (Phaeophyceae).
The chemical composition of alginates varies according to the seaweed species and even within different parts of the same seaweed.
Alginate molecules occur in the cell walls and intercellular spaces, where they provide both flexibility and strength to the seaweed.

Sodium and E402 (Potassium alginate) are salts of alginic acid.
Alginic acid is a polysaccharide composed of two monomer units of polyuronic acids: β-d-mannuronic acid (M) and Potassium polyalginats C-5 epimer, α-l-guluronic acid (G), both linked through (1,4)-glycosidic bonds.
The units building the linear copolymer are arranged in a block by block pattern with homopolymeric regions of G sequences (G-blocks) and a homopolymeric region of M residues (M-blocks) interspersed by heteropolymeric blocks of alternating M and G (MG-blocks) (Figures 1 and 2).
After processing, alginates usually have a degree of polymerisation in the range 50–3,000, corresponding to molecular weights of approximately 10–600 kDa.
The linear copolymers react with multivalent cations gelling or forming three-dimensional structures.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is provided as a white to yellowish free-flowing powder.
E402 (Potassium alginate) dissolves slowly in water, forming a viscous solution.
Kelmars viscosity depends on the molecular weight of the polymer.
E402 (Potassium alginate) as a food additive (Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/201210) is specified to yield, on the anhydrous basis, not less than 16,5% and not more than 19.5% of carbon dioxide corresponding to not less than 89.2% and not more than 105.5% of E402 (Potassium alginate) (calculated on an equivalent weight basis of 238).
Eight batches of the feed additive were analysed for batch to batch variation showing dry matter (DM) content of 91.08–92.02% and CO2 from alginate of 18.1–18.6%, corresponding to 95.6–98.1% E402 (Potassium alginate) in DM; potassium content varied between 14.4% and 15.7%.11 Eight batches of the additive were also subject of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis.
The results confirmed the identity of the additive.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is specified to contain < 3 mg As/kg, < 5 mg Pb/kg, < 1 mg Hg/kg, < 1 mg Cd/kg, total plate count < 1,000 CFU/g, yeast and moulds < 500 CFU/g, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.
Absent in 5 and 10 g of the additive, respectively.
Eleven batches of the additive were analysed for impurities, showing compliance with these specifications.
Eight batches of the additive were analysed for particle size distribution (laser diffraction)14 and for dusting potential (Stauber-Heubach method).

Milky-white or light yellow powder and granule, good hydrophilic property, fluidity, thickener, gel property, the strength is better than that of sodium alginate in the same condition.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is a salt of alginic acid.
In the food industry Potassium polyalginat is used as a thickener and stabilizer in the production of ice cream, dairy products, jelly, and enriches products with organic potassium.

Binder / Stabilizer - Retains the physical characteristics of food/cosmetics and ensure the mixture remains in an even state.
Emulsifier - Allows water and oils to remain mixed together to form an emulsion, such as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk
Gelling Agent / Thickener - Increases the viscosity by thickening the liquid to give it more texture
E402 (Potassium alginate) is the potassium salt of alginic acid.
Kelmar is an extract of seaweed.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is used in many products including custard mixes, yoghurt, jelly, flavoured milk, artificial sweetener base, canned icing, cheese, as well as being used in slimming aids and indigestion tablets.
Kelmar is also used for low-salt/sodium products.
E402 (Potassium alginate) has E number 402.
Kelmar is approved to use as food additive in EU and generally recognized as safe food substance in US.


Foaming agent
Gelling agent
Glazing agent

Stabilizing and bodying agent in foods; base for dental impression material
In drilling muds; in coatings; in flocculation of solids in water treatment; as sizing agent; thickener /Algin/

E402 (Potassium alginate) is mainly used in medicine and health caring food additives because of the function on blood fat, blood sugar and cholesterol lowering.
At the same time, E402 (Potassium alginate) is also a good material for dental mould casting and mask, and is used in field of cosmetic gradually.
Alginate absorbs water quickly, which makes Potassium polyalginat useful as an additive in dehydrated products such as slimming aids, and in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is also used for waterproofing and fireproofing fabrics, in the food industry as a thickening agent for drinks, ice cream, cosmetics, and as a gelling agent for jellies.
Sodium alginate is mixed with soybean flour to make meat analogue.[citation needed]
Alginate is used as an ingredient in various pharmaceutical preparations, such as Gaviscon, in which Potassium polyalginat combines with bicarbonate to inhibit gastroesophageal reflux.
Sodium alginate is used as an impression-making material in dentistry, prosthetics, lifecasting, and for creating positives for small-scale casting.
Sodium alginate is used in reactive dye printing and as a thickener for reactive dyes in textile screen-printing.[citation needed] Alginates do not react with these dyes and wash out easily, unlike starch-based thickeners.
E402 (Potassium alginate) also serves as a material for micro-encapsulation.
Calcium alginate is used in different types of medical products, including skin wound dressings to promote healing, and may be removed with less pain than conventional dressings.

Dental Cast: the main component of impression material.
Cosmetic: soft basic material of cosmetic
Welding Material: plasticizer, binder of electrode

E402 (Potassium alginate) is specially developed for Potassium polyalginats application as a lubricant at the die for coating flux on welding electrodes.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is a kind of natural carbohydrate extracted from seaweed.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is mainly used in medicine and health caring food additives because of the function on blood fat, blood sugar and cholesterol lowering.
At the same time, E402 (Potassium alginate) is also a good material for dental mould casting and mask, and is used in field of cosmetic gradually.

Food Applications
E402 (Potassium alginate) functions as a thickener, gelling agent, and a possible new material substituting for sodium alginate.
For low salt diets and sodium intake suppression, E402 (Potassium alginate) is in more demand than sodium alginate.
For health food applications which use alginate as a dietary fiber, E402 (Potassium alginate) has become popular.

E402 (Potassium alginate) is included in the list of food additives admissible for use in the food industry of the Russian Federation as an aid for the production of food products.
E402 can be used in the production of ice cream and dairy products, jellies, processed cheeses, curd masses, desserts, processed cheeses, homemade cheeses, some types of sauces, canned mushrooms and vegetables, canned meat, bakery products.

Pharmaceutical Applications
E402 (Potassium alginate) is widely used in foods as a stabilizer, thickener, and emulsifier; however, Potassium polyalginats use as a pharmaceutical excipient is currently limited to experimental hydrogel systems.
The viscosity, adhesiveness, elasticity, stiffness, and cohesiveness of E402 (Potassium alginate) hydrogels have been determined and compared with values from a range of other hydrogel-forming materials.
The effect of calcium ions on the rheological properties of procyanidin hydrogels containing E402 (Potassium alginate) and intended for oral administration has also been investigated.

Suppression of Abnormally High Blood Pressure
Due to Potassium polyalginats use in health food, attention has been focused on the bioactivity of E402 (Potassium alginate).
Alginate is a natural dietary fiber and is excreted without being digested, but has an effect within the body by ion-exchanging with cations prior to discharge.
According to research, E402 (Potassium alginate) has a much higher sodium ion adsorption capacity over other polysaccharides and the ingestion of E402 (Potassium alginate) actually leads to excretion of sodium from the body.
The research also suggests that Potassium polyalginat is effective in suppressing hypertension.
In addition to the conventional dietary fiber effect (suppression of blood cholesterol, improvement of bowel movements, etc.), the expectations for E402 (Potassium alginate) as a new material which has the effect of excreting sodium from the body have certainly increased.​

E402 (Potassium alginate) is a gum that is the potassium salt of alginic acid.
Kelmar is soluble in cold water, forming a viscous colloidal solution.
E402 (Potassium alginate) functions as a stabilizer, thickener, and gelling agent.
Kelmar is used in dietetic foods, low-sodium foods, dry mixes, and dental impression material. Typical usage levels range from 0.05 to 0.50%.
Thickening agent and stabilizer in dairy prod- ucts, canned fruits, and sausage casings; emulsifier.

Algin is a type of carbohydrate found in brown seaweeds.
Kelmar is also produced by some bacteria. Algin is used to make medicine.
Algin is used to lower cholesterol levels and to reduce the amount of heavy chemicals including strontium, barium, tin, cadmium, manganese, zinc, and mercury that are taken up by the body.
Algin is also used for the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure.
In foods, algin is used in candy, gelatins, puddings, condiments, relishes, processed vegetables, fish products, and imitation dairy products.
In manufacturing, algin is used as a binding agent in tablets, as a binding and soothing agent in throat lozenges, and as a film in peel-off facial masks.

E402 (Potassium alginate) Stabilizer is a food additive that acts as both a stabilizer and a thickener.
E402 (Potassium alginate) is very comparable to Sodium Alginate and can be found in similar products, although E402 (Potassium alginate) tends to stay within the food industry.
E402 (Potassium alginate) Stabilizer can be found in products like ice cream, salsa, pudding, jam, and some beverages.

Specific Uses of the Alginates:

In 1881, alginic acid was first isolated and named by a Scottish scientist, Dr. E.C.C. Stanford (K. Draget 2009).
Since then, alginic acid and Potassium polyalginats derivatives have been utilized as a hydrocolloid in a variety of applications such as food additives, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and textile manufacturing (Kimica 2009).
Alginates are the most widely produced polysaccharide (Brownlee, et al. 2005).
They are used in food production and handling as an emulsifier or emulsifier salt, firming agent, flavor enhancer or flavor adjuvant, formulation aid, processing aid, stabilizer or thickener, surface-active agent and texturizer (Truong, Walter and Giesbrecht 1995).
Alginates are used in food applications at levels ranging from 0.5-1.5% (Brownlee, et al. 2005).
“Given the large number of different applications, alginates must be regarded as one of the most versatile polysaccharides” (Draget, Smidsrød and Skjåk-Bræk 2005).
Alginates are used to extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces.

Alginates are used to extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces (Rößle, et al. 2011).
Alginates are used as carriers of active or functional food ingredients (e.g., anti-browning agents, colorants, flavors, nutrients, spices, antimicrobial compounds) (Rößle, et al. 2011).
As components of edible coatings or films, alginates act as a protective barrier to retard food spoilage and extend the effectiveness of an active ingredient (Datta, et al. 2008).
Alginates are used in solid foods “to prevent water loss, syneresis1 214 and phase separation” (Saltmarsh, Barlow and eds. 2013).
As selective barriers to moisture, oxygen, lipid oxidation and loss of volatile aromas and flavors, edible films increase the functionality of fresh-cut, pre-packaged fruits (Rößle, et al. 2011).
Fresh apple wedges coated with alginate resulted in better retention of polyphenolic compounds than the uncoated wedges (Rößle, et al. 2011).
Starch-alginate (SA) coatings are used to inhibit lipid oxidation and the formation of a “warmed-over flavor” in pre-cooked meats (Wu, et al. 2001).
The barrier properties of SA-films improved with the addition of stearic acid.
Starch-alginate-stearic acid (SAS) coatings were more effective in prohibiting moisture loss than lipid oxidation (Wu, et al. 2001).
Calcium alginate gels combined with antimicrobial agents have been used to preserve a wide variety of food products.
When compared to the application of the antimicrobial agents alone, the use of the edible coating, calcium alginate gel, retained the effectiveness of two antimicrobial agents, nisin and oyster lysozyme, against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella anatum by 35 days (Datta, et al. 2008).
Lactic acids added to calcium alginate gels reduced L. monocytogenes populations on lean beef tissue more than the acid treatment alone (Siragusa and Dickson 1992).
The ability of alginates to instantly form gels, skins and fibers renders them useful for restructured foods (onion rings, pet-food chunks).
Sodium alginate is commonly used as a stabilizer of ice cream to control the formation of ice crystals and improve flavor (Saltmarsh, Barlow and eds. 2013).
Sodium alginate impedes the movement of water during melt/freeze cycles, thereby preventing the formation of ice crystals and fat clump growth in frozen products (Saltmarsh, Barlow and eds. 2013).
Alginates are also used in many dairy products to prevent the attachment of food and packaging materials to foods such as refined cheese and cream cheese.
Sodium, potassium and ammonium alginates are soluble in cold water; these salts can be used interchangeably in food products for thickening, gelling, stabilizing, formation of films and controlled release applications (Saltmarsh, Barlow and eds. 2013).
Their ability to make gels without the use of heat distinguishes alginates from other hydrocolloids that require high-temperature processes (i.e., gelatin, agar, carrageenan, locust bean gum).
Alginates are useful when using heat sensitive ingredients (flavors, instant mixes).
Some examples of typical products that utilize alginates include sauces, salad dressings, desserts, fruit preparations, ice cream and water ices, onion rings, low-fat spreads, bakery filling creams, fruit pies, flavor capsules, icing and frostings (Saltmarsh, Barlow and eds. 2013).
Melting, and therefore can be used in baking creams (Draget, Smidsrød and Skjåk-Bræk 2005).
When used in combination, alginate-pectin gels exhibit a higher gel strength than either component alone, and alginate248 pectin gels are heat reversible (Brownlee, et al. 2005).
Ammonium alginate is used for can sealing due to Potassium polyalginats very low ash content (K. Draget 2009).

Benefits of E402 (Potassium alginate)
-Improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system,
-Replenishes potassium deficiency,
-Maintains water balance in body tissues,
-Normalizes the work of the gastrointestinal tract,
-Stimulates metabolic processes in muscle tissue,
-Selectively binds and removes ions of heavy metals and radionuclides from the body,
-Has a modifying effect on post-radiation processes in the hematopoietic system

Use Classification
-Food additives
-Cosmetics -> Binding; Emulsion stabilizing; Viscosity controlling

Chemical Properties
Property Name and Property Value    
Molecular Weight: 446.44
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 6
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 13
Rotatable Bond Count: 2
Exact Mass: 445.9865035
Monoisotopic Mass: 445.9865035
Topological Polar Surface Area: 229 Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 27
Formal Charge: 0
Complexity: 500
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 10
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 3
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Occurs in filamentous, grainy, granular, and powdered forms.
Kelmar is colorless or slightly yel- low and may have a slight characteristic smell and taste.
Slowly soluble in water, forming a viscous solution; insoluble in alcohol.
E402 (Potassium alginate) occurs as a white to yellowish, fibrous or granular powder; Potassium polyalginat is almost odorless and tasteless.

Viscosity( 1% solution, cps): As required
Particle size: As required
Moisture: ≤14%
pH: 6 to 9.5
Lead (Pb): ≤0.0005%
Arsenic (As): ≤0.0002%
Heavy metal: ≤0.001%
Insoluble matter: ≤0.30%
Calcium (Ca): ≤0.30%
Sulfuric acid ash: 30 to 37%

Chemical formula: (C6H8O6)n
Molar mass: 10,000 – 600,000
Appearance: White to yellow, fibrous powder
Density: 1.601 g/cm3
Acidity (pKa): 1.5–3.5

Loss on drying: Not more than 15% (105°, 4h)
Water-insoluble matter: Not more than 2% on the dried basisSee description under TESTS
Arsenic: Not more than 3 mg/kg (Method II)
Lead: Not more than 5 mg/kg. Prepare a sample solution as directed for organic compounds in the Limit Test, using 2 g of the sample and 10 m g of lead ion (Pb) in the control

Microbiological criteria
Total plate count: Not more than 5,000 colonies per gram.
Initially prepare a 10-1 dilution by adding a 50 g sample to 450 ml of Butterfield's phosphate buffered dilution water and homogenizing in a high speed blender.
Yeasts and moulds: Not more than 500 colonies per gram
Coliforms: Negative by test
Salmonella: Negative by test

Experimental Properties of E402 (Potassium alginate)

Physical Description
Nearly odourless, white to yellowish fibrous or granular powder


Slight characteristic smell

Slight characteristic taste

Volume, ml: 8000
Shelf life: 1080
Model name: E402 (Potassium alginate), food supplement, 2kg
Storage conditions: Store in a dry, dark place at temperatures up to 30 ° C.
Maximum temperature: 25
Composition: E402 (Potassium alginate) from White Sea kelp
Minimum temperature: 5
A type: Food supplement

Slowly sol in water; insol in alcohol
Readily sol in hot or cold water
E402 (Potassium alginate) is soluble in water, dissolving to form a viscous hydrophilic colloidal solution.
Kelmar is insoluble in ethanol (95%) and in hydroalcoholic solutions in which the alcohol content is greater than 30% by weight; also insoluble in chloroform, ether, and acids having a pH lower than about 3.
When preparing solutions of E402 (Potassium alginate) Potassium polyalginat is important to ensure proper dispersion of the particles, as poor dispersion will lead to the formation of large lumps of unhydrated powder and significantly extended hydration times.

Other Experimental Properties

Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1→4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks.
The monomers may appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks).
Note that α-L-guluronate is the C-5 epimer of β-D-mannuronate.

Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds.
Throughout the world, many of the Phaeophyceae class brown seaweeds are harvested to be processed and converted into sodium alginate.
Sodium alginate is used in many industries including food, animal food, fertilisers, textile printing, and pharmaceuticals.
Dental impression material uses alginate as Potassium polyalginats means of gelling. Food grade alginate is an approved ingredient in processed and manufactured foods.
Brown seaweeds range in size from the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera which can be 20–40 meters long, to thick, leather-like seaweeds from 2–4 m long, to smaller species 30–60 cm long.
Most brown seaweed used for alginates are gathered from the wild, with the exception of Laminaria japonica, which is cultivated in China for food and its surplus material is diverted to the alginate industry in China.
Alginates from different species of brown seaweed vary in their chemical structure resulting in different physical properties of alginates.
Some species yield an alginate that gives a strong gel, another a weaker gel, some may produce a cream or white alginate, while others are difficult to gel and are best used for technical applications where color does not matter.
Commercial grade alginate are extracted from giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, Ascophyllum nodosum, and types of Laminaria.
Alginates are also produced by two bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, which played a major role in the unravelling of its biosynthesis pathway.
Bacterial alginates are useful for the production of micro- or nanostructures suitable for medical applications.
E402 (Potassium alginate) (KC6H7O6) is the potassium salt of alginic acid.

Names and Identifiers

IUPAC Name: dipotassium;(2S,3S,4S,5S,6R)-6-[(2S,3S,4R,5S,6R)-2-carboxylato-4,5,6-trihydroxyoxan-3-yl]oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylate
InChI: 1S/C12H18O13.2K/c13-1-2(14)7(9(18)19)25-12(5(1)17)24-6-3(15)4(16)11(22)23-8(6)10(20)21;;/h1-8,11-17,22H,(H,18,19)(H,20,21);;/q;2*+1/p-2/t1-,2-,3+,4-,5-,6-,7-,8-,11+,12+;;/m0../s1
Canonical SMILES: C1(C(C(OC(C1O)OC2C(C(C(OC2C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)C(=O)[O-])O)O.[K+].[K+]
Isomeric SMILES: [C@@H]1([C@@H]([C@H](O[C@H]([C@H]1O)O[C@H]2[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@@H](O[C@@H]2C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)C(=O)[O-])O)O.[K+].[K+]

Alginate hydrogels
Alginate may be used in a hydrogel consisting of microparticles or bulk gels combined with nerve growth factor in bioengineering research to stimulate brain tissue for possible regeneration.
In research on bone reconstruction, alginate composites have favorable properties encouraging regeneration, such as improved porosity, cell proliferation, and mechanical strength, among other characteristics.
Alginate hydrogel is a common biomaterial for bio-fabrication of scaffolds and tissue regeneration.

In the solid state, E402 (Potassium alginate) is a stable material that is not prone to microbial spoilage.
Over time, a slow reduction in the degree of polymerization can occur, which may be reflected in a reduction in the viscosity of solutions.
As both temperature and moisture can impair the performance of E402 (Potassium alginate), storage below 25°C is recommended.
E402 (Potassium alginate) solutions are stable at pH 4–10; long-term storage outside this range can result in depolymerization of the polymer through hydrolysis. 
Gelation or precipitation of the alginate can occur at pH values less than 4.
Liquid or semisolid alginate formulations should be preserved: suitable preservatives are sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, or parabens.
E402 (Potassium alginate) should be stored under cool, dry conditions in a well-closed container.


E402 (Potassium alginate)
Alginic acid,
potassium salt
Kelmar improved
E402 (Potassium alginate)
Potassium polymannuronate

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