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E434 (Polysorbate 40)

CAS No: 9005-66-7

E434 (Polysorbate 40), also known as Tween 40, the full name polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate, 40 means monopalmitate. It is an emulsifier and stabiliser in food with the European food additive number E434. 

E434 (Polysorbate 40) POLYOXYETHYLENE SORBITAN; MONOPALMITATE POLYOXYETHYLENE GLYCOL SORBITAN; MONOPALMITATE POLYOXYETHYLENE (20) SORBITAN; MONOPALMITATE E434 (Polysorbate 40) TWEEN NO 40 TWEEN(R) 40 crill7 Sorbitan,monopalmitate, polyoxyethylene derivs. (8CI) Crillet 2 Durfax 60 E434 Emsorb 6910 Emulgen TWP 120 Ethoxylated sorbitan monopalmitate Glycosperse P 20 Lonzest SMP 20 MP 55F Montanox 40 Nikkol TP 10 NissanNonion PT 221 Rheodol Super TW-P 120 Rheodol TW-P 120 Rheodol TW-P 120V Sorbimacrogolpalmitate 300 Sorbon T 40 TP 10EX Tween 16:0 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate; E434 (Polysorbate 40); POLYOXYETHYLENE SORBITAN MONOPALMITATE; 9005-66-7; Crillet 2; Glycosperse p-20; Crill 7; Durfax 60; Radiasurf 7145; Emsorb 6910;Tween(R) 40; Nissan Nonion PT-221; Polyethylene glycol (80) sorbitan monopalmitate; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate; Polyoxyethylene (80) sorbitan monopalmitate; Crill 7; Crillet 2; Durfax 60; Emsorb 6910; Ethoxylated sorbitan monopalmitate; Glycosperse P-20; Nissan Nonion PT-221; Polyethylene glycol sorbitan monopalmitate; Polyethylene glycol-sorbitan monopalmitate adduct; Polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monopalmitate; E434 (Polysorbate 40); Radiasurf 7145; Sorbimacrogol palmitate 300; Sorbitan monopalmitate polyethylene glycol ether; Sorbitan polyethoxy monopalmitate; Sorbitan, monohexadecanoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.; Sorbitan, monopalmitate, polyoxyethylene derivs; E434 (Polysorbate 40);

It is a mixture of the partial esters of sorbitol and its mono-and dianhydrides with edible palmitic acid and condensed with approximately 20 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of sorbitol and its anhydrides. 
How is it Made?
This ingredient is made from the chemical reaction among sorbitol, palmitic acid and ethylene oxide. The manufacturing process is similar to other polysorbates: 20, 60, and 80.
Palmitic acid
Palmitic acid and stearic acid are the most common saturated fatty acid found in animal fats & oils and plant oils. Like other fatty acids, palmitic acid is also present in nature usually in the form of triglycerides. 
The following are the natural sources high with palmitic acid (2):
    Palm oil
    Soybean oil
    Sunflower oil 
    Butter
    Cheese
    Milk
    Meat
    cocoa butter
It is produced from d‐glucose which is commonly made from maize or tapioca. Learn more about Sorbitol

Different with other polysorbates, E434 (Polysorbate 40) is approved as an indirect emulsifier instead of a direct food additive by the FDA. That makes it used less in food in the USA.
However, it can be used as a direct food additive and its safety has been re-evaluated in 2015 by EFSA and JECFA
Its food uses are listed together with other polysorbates: polysorbate 20 (E432), 60(E435), 65(E436) and 80(E433). 
E434 (Polysorbate 40) is also used as an emulsifier or surfactant to help mix oil and water in cosmetics and personal care products.

It is not natural as it is made from chemical synthesis, the referred reactions are esterification and condensation. 
Is it Halal, Kosher and Vegan?
Yes, E434 (Polysorbate 40) would be halal, kosher and vegan if the fatty acid palmitic acid is sourced from vegetables. 

Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation. They are often used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products. Polysorbates are oily liquids derived from ethoxylated sorbitan (a derivative of sorbitol) esterified with fatty acids. Common brand names for polysorbates include Kolliphor,[1] Scattics, Alkest, Canarcel, and Tween
Textile operations include fiber synthesis, weaving, manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing

    Bath, Shower & Soaps
    Body Care
    Face / Neck Skin Care
    Face Colour
    Hair Conditioners - Rinse off
    Lip Care
    Shampoos
    Sun Protection

    Hard Surface Cleaning
    Industrial & Institutional Cleaning
    Vehicle Care
    Waxes & Polishes

    Emulsifier
    Solubiliser

Regional Availability
    Asia
    Europe
    Latin America

Certifications and Standards
    Halal grades available
    Safer Choice

Sustainability Criteria
    RSPO grade available

Non-ionic detergent used for cell lysis, nuclei isolation and cell fractionation.

Polyoxyethylenesorbitan monopalmitate, or E434 (Polysorbate 40), has been used in a study to assess the determination of iodide in urine based on a chemiluminescence system. It has also been used in a study to investigate the delivery of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin to HepG2 cells.
Tween-40 is an amber oily liquid. Relative density: 1.05-1.10. HLB value is 15.6. E434 (Polysorbate 40) is soluble in water, diluted acid, diluted alkalis, and most organic solvents, insoluble in vegetable oil.

Tween-40 is used as an emulsifier in:
•     Ice cream, frozen custard, ice milk, fruit sherbet, and non-standardized frozen desserts.
•     Yeast-defoamer formulations.
•     Edible fats and oils in special dietary foods.
•     Shortening or edible oils intended for food use not precluded by standards of identity.
•     Whipped edible oil topping. Tween-40 is also a Solubilizing and dispersing agent in:
•     Pickles and pickle products
•     Vitamin-mineral preparations containing calcium caseinate in the absence of a fat-soluble vitamin..
•     Fat-soluble vitamins in vitamin and vitamin-mineral preparations containing no calcium caseinate.
•     Vitamin-mineral preparations containing both calcium caseinate and fat-soluble vitamins.
•     Dill oil in canned spiced green beans.

Tween-40 is a high HLB surfactant suggested for use in:
•     Cosmetic Applications: as an o/w and fragrance emulsifier for shampoos,conditioners, crèmes and lotions, and bath products.
The function(s) performed by the food additive when used in cooking.
•    Emulsifier - An agent that forms or preserves a mixture of substances normally incapable of being mixed eg. oil and water

Dietary restrictions:
These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.
E434 is a synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and palmitic acid (a natural fatty acid).

Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds.

Emulsifiers, Stabilisers, Thickeners and Gelling Agents.
E434 is a synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound), sorbitol (see E420) and palmitic acid (a natural fatty acid). Used as an anti foaming agent and fat-soluble antioxidant.
Found in desserts, sugar confectionery.
Description: E434 (Polysorbate 40), also known as PEG 40 and Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monopalmitate, is a polyoxyethylene derivative of sorbitol, ethylene oxide as a petroleum derivative and palm oil in the form of palmitic acid. Can cause skin allergy in some people. Also regarded as a detergent.

It is an emulsifier derived from animal fatty acids, and natural oils and used as synthetic flavourings, surfactants, de foaming agents and dough conditioners. It may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances.

To evaluate your exposure to the E434 - Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate food additive, you can browse our list of products that contain it. See the list of products with E434 - Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate below.
Durfax™ 60 is a nonionic, water dispersible, surface active agent that is highly hydrophilic. It is used primarily in cakes and bakery mixes for greater volume and finer, more uniform grain. It is also used in whipped toppings for overrun and increased volume and stiffness, in icings and fillings for lower specific gravities and better resistance to weeping, and in chocolate and other confectionery coatings to control fat crystallization for greater gloss retention and bloom resistance.

E434 (Polysorbate 40) is found in pharmaceuticals and food preparation. This substance is often used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products.

What are some products that may contain E434 (Polysorbate 40): Cosmetics Medications

polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monopalmitate
FCM and Articles Regulation, Annex I - Authorised Substances, FCMs Recycled Plastic & Articles Regulation - Annex I - Authorised Use
E434 (Polysorbate 40)


Sorbitan, monohexadecanoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.
Polyoxyethylenesorbitan monopalmitate

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