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CAS NUMBER: 84238-17-5 

EC NUMBER: 282-486-6

Hydrogenated Palm Acid is an end-product of the controlled hydrogenation of Palm Acid(q.v.).
Hydrogenated palm acid is a highly versatile and inexpensive vegetable oil – we eat it, put it on our bodies and can burn it for fuel.

Hydrogenated palm acid is also an extremely efficient crop, producing as much as 10 times per hectare as other vegetable oils. 
This has made Hydrogenated palm acid a major driver of economic growth in many countries, particularly Indonesia and Malaysia, which together are responsible for most of the world’s Hydrogenated palm acid supply.

Hydrogenated palm acid reduces the transparency or translucency of cosmetics.
Hydrogenated palm acids are the fatty acid component of Hydrogenated palm acid. 

Hydrogenated palm acid allows the oily liquid to remain in a solid state at room temperature.
Hydrogenated palm acid is readily fractionated into a high melting point and a low melting point fraction, the stearin and olein. 

A second fractionation can yield a mid fraction. 
The standard process involves crystallisation at a controlled temperature (say 22°C) followed by separation of the liquid fraction, most usually in a plate and frame filter press. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is found that the olein is of rather uniform composition, whereas the properties of the stearin vary depending on the process conditions, particularly in the filtration.
Hydrogenated palm acid distillate (Hydrogenated palm acid) was used as raw material to produce solid lubricant, or anti-adherent, for confectionery or pharmaceutical products. 

To improve the degree of saturation, the Hydrogenated palm acid was hydrogenated by using two methods: gaseous hydrogenation (GH) and catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) using ammonium formate to produce hydrogenated Hydrogenated palm acid (HHydrogenated palm acid). 
The HHydrogenated palm acid was saponified with MgO to produce magnesium salts of hydrogenated Hydrogenated palm acid (Mg-HHydrogenated palm acid). 

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of hydrogen concentration and reaction temperature on the iodine value of HHydrogenated palm acid and to investigate the characteristics of paracetamol tablets when using Mg-HHydrogenated palm acid as lubricant compared to commercial Mg-stearate. 
The HHydrogenated palm acid produced by CTH had a lower iodine value than the HHydrogenated palm acid produced by GH. 

The lowest iodine value was obtained after Hydrogenated palm acid using 3.6 M ammonium formate at 90C. 
Hydrogenated palm acid showed higher dissolution of active compounds with similar friability, frictiability, and hardness compared to paracetamol tablets with Mg-stearate.

Hydrogenated palm acid was hydrogenated using Armfield hydrogenation pilot plant unit. 
Effects of Hydrogenated palm acid temperature on the total conversion and selectivity were investigated. 

Noticeable effect of hydrogenation temperature on the reaction conversion was found. 
The values of reaction conversion at temperatures 99 and 130 °C were found to be considerably lower, when compared to those at temperatures 137 and 149 °C. 

The alteration on Hydrogenated palm acid composition had been studied at varying temperature and other parameters were kept constant. 
Hydrogenated palm acid can also be observed that the trans-fatty acids (TFA) content in the PMF samples hydrogenated at temperature ranges 130–137 °C, and 137–149 °C were found to be 0.197 and 0.186, respectively. 

Effect of reaction temperature on mass transfer resistance from the Hydrogenated palm acid to the catalyst surface was estimated. 
The obtained results clarify that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient was increased around 140% by increasing the reaction temperature from 99 to 130 °C.

Hydrogenated palm acid palm stearin is used in Margarine and Shortening Industries; used as a source for producing specialty fats for coating in co
Hydrogenated palm acid is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms.

Hydrogenated palm acid is used in food manufacturing, in beauty products, and as biofuel. 
Hydrogenated palm acid accounted for about 33% of global oils produced from oil crops in 2014.

The use of Hydrogenated palm acid has attracted the concern of environmental groups due to deforestation in the tropics where palms are grown, and has been cited as a factor in social problems due to allegations of human rights violations among growers. 
An industry group formed in 2004 to create more sustainable and ethical Hydrogenated palm acid, through the Roundtable on Sustainable Hydrogenated palm acid. 

However, very little Hydrogenated palm acid is certified through the organization, and some groups have criticized Hydrogenated palm acid as greenwashing.
Hydrogenated palm acid distillate or Hydrogenated palm acid is one of the many waste and residue raw materials. 

Although linked through supply chains, Hydrogenated palm acid and Hydrogenated palm acid are different renewable raw materials: Hydrogenated palm acid is a crop-based vegetable oil whereas Hydrogenated palm acid is a processing residue derived from the refining of food-grade Hydrogenated palm acid for the food and chemical industry uses
Hydrogenated palm acid is said to be found in 50% of supermarket products, from food to household cleaners to cosmetics.

Hydrogenated palm acid is a type of vegetable oil derived from Hydrogenated palm acid fruit. 
Hydrogenated palm acid may be present in some form in nearly every room of your home. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is widely used for its properties and because it is cheap.
Hydrogenated palm acids low price is partly due to its high yield, but also because, as with other mass produced crops, the environmental and social costs go unaccounted for. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is a major food fat in the American dietary. 
Food uses of partially hydrogenated soybean oil are in the production of margarine, shortening, and salad and cooking oils. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is obtained from soybeans by expression or solvent extraction and contains triglycerides of linoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and saturated fatty acids. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is also highly saturated fat plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. Hydrogenated palm acid remains a semi-solid at room temperature. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is often used in the hydrogenated form in the food industry, but may be less used in the future due to regulation on trans-fat content of food. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is primarily composed of lauric fatty acid (48%) and myristic fatty acid (16%) and for the production of soaps, washing powders and personal care products in industry. 

Found in about 50% of packaged food items goods in the U.S., Hydrogenated palm acid goes by many names, including Palm Kernel Oil, Palmitate, and Glyceryl Stearate. 
To increase shelf life and obtain the cooking properties of solid shortenings, oils are partially hydrogenated.

Hydrogenated palm acid, a healthy edible oil, is an important source of energy.
Hydrogenated palm acid, a nutritious vegetable oil that can be used in many products, health due to its oil-free and rich vitamin and antioxidant content.

Hydrogenated palm acid is an important product.
Hydrogenated palm acid is naturally derived from its high beta carotene content.

Hydrogenated palm acid is red in color. Extracted from Hydrogenated palm acid and the kernel of the same plant
Hydrogenated palm acid is different products.

Hydrogenated palm acid and Hydrogenated palm acid color and saturated fat content differs in. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is not red in color because Hydrogenated palm acid does not contain.

While the saturated fat content is 41%, this rate is in Hydrogenated palm acid.
Saturated fat content of Hydrogenated palm acid with coconut oil rare vegetable that is semi-solid at high and room temperature are oils.

Hydrogenated palm acid is often used in cooking. 
Hydrogenated palm acid; low cost, solid at room temperature and high oxidative stability widely used in the food industry worldwide due to is used.

Hydrogenated palm acid contains saturated and unsaturated fats. Some types of Hydrogenated palm acid contain vitamin E and beta-carotene. 
These types of Hydrogenated palm acid might have antioxidant effects. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is made by bleaching, deodorizing, and neutralizing crude Hydrogenated palm acid.
Hydrogenated palm acid is used Hydrogenated palm acid for preventing and treating vitamin A deficiency. 




Hydrogenated palm acid is used in Margarine and Shortening Industries; used as a source for producing specialty fats for coating in confectionery. 
Hydrogenated palm acid's also used in soap and oleochemical industries.

The highly saturated nature of Hydrogenated palm acid renders Hydrogenated palm acid solid at room temperature in temperate regions, making Hydrogenated palm acid a cheap substitute for butter or Hydrogenated palm acids in uses where solid fat is desirable, such as the making of pastry dough and baked goods. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is sometimes used as a minor ingredient in calf milk replacer.

Hydrogenated palm acid is pervasively used in personal care and cleaning products, and it provides the foaming agent in nearly every soap, shampoo, or detergent. 
Around 70% of personal care products including soap, shampoo, makeup, and lotion, contain ingredients derived from Hydrogenated palm acid. 

However, there are more than 200 different names for these Hydrogenated palm acid ingredients and only 10% of them include the word “palm".
Hydrogenated palm acid is used to produce both methyl ester and hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel.

Hydrogenated palm acid methyl ester is created through a process called transesterification. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is often blended with other fuels to create Hydrogenated palm acid biodiesel blends.

Hydrogenated palm acid meets the European EN 14214 standard for biodiesels.
Hydrogenated palm acid is produced by direct hydrogenolysis of the fat into alkanes and propane. 

The world's largest Hydrogenated palm acid biodiesel plant is the €550 million Finnish-operated Neste Oil biodiesel plant in Singapore, which opened in 2011 with a capacity of 800,000 tons per year and produces hydrodeoxygenated NEXBTL biodiesel from Hydrogenated palm acid imported from Malaysia and Indonesia.
Significant amounts of Hydrogenated palm acid exports to Europe are converted to biodiesel (as of early 2018: Indonesia: 40%, Malaysia 30%).

In 2014, almost half of all the Hydrogenated palm acid in Europe was burned as car and truck fuel.
As of 2018, one-half of Europe's Hydrogenated palm acid imports were used for biodiesel.

Use of Hydrogenated palm acid as biodiesel generates three times the carbon emissions as using fossil fuel, and, for example, "biodiesel made from Indonesian Hydrogenated palm acid makes the global carbon problem worse, not better."
There are pressures for increased oil palm production from Indonesian palm-based biodiesel programs. 

Hydrogenated palm acid currently contains a 30:70 Hydrogenated palm acid to conventional diesel ratio (known as B30) at the gas pumps. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is produced when processing oil palm, including oil palm shells and oil palm fruit bunches, can also be used to produce energy. 

Hydrogenated palm acid can be converted into pellets that can be used as a biofuel.
Additionally, Hydrogenated palm acid that has been used to fry foods can be converted into methyl esters for biodiesel. 

The used Hydrogenated palm acid is chemically treated to create a biodiesel similar to petroleum diesel.
Hydrogenated palm acid and coconut oils or fractions have many uses in food products, especially in products where specific melting points and good oxidative stabilities are important. 
Trends in Hydrogenated palm acid indicate that more and more energy-saving and automation devices will be used to reduce energy and labor costs and to make more uniform products, especially in batch processes.



-opacifying agents




-opacifying agent, 

-surfactant - cleansing agent, 

-surfactant - emulsifying agent, 





-Acid Value (mg KOH/g):    2 Max

-Saponification Value (mg KOH/g): 195-205

-Iodine Value (% I2absorbed): 0.5 Max

-Moisture,Impurities, Unsap (%): 0.5 Max

-Melting point (oC ): 58-61

-Color (Lov, R/Y): 2.5R Max

-Product Form: Liquid / Solid/ Flakes / Beads




-Physical State: Liquid

-Boiling Point: 162 °C

-Melting Point: 0.5 °C (lit.)

-Flash Point: 62°C
Density: 0.894




-Hydrogenated oil





-brow liner    

-lip balm    


-around-eye cream    

-hair color and bleaching






-Plant Extracts








-Free Fatty Acids (as palmitic) (AOCS Ca 5a-40): 0.2%

-Moisture and Impurities (AOCS Ca 2c-25): 0.15% max

-Slip Melting Point (AOCS Cc 3-25): 44° C min

-Iodine Value (Wijs) (AOCS Cd 1-25): 48 max

-Colour (Lovibond 5.25 cell) (model AF 900E): 3 R max

-Peroxide Value: 10 max




Hydrogenated palm acid is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm. 

The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49% saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated fats, respectively. 
However, Hydrogenated palm acid that has been refined, bleached and deodorized, a common commodity called Hydrogenated palm acid, does not contain carotenoids. 

Many industrial food applications of Hydrogenated palm acid use fractionated components of Hydrogenated palm acid (often listed as "modified Hydrogenated palm acid") whose saturation levels can reach 90%; these "modified" Hydrogenated palm acids can become highly saturated, but are not necessarily hydrogenated.
Hydrogenated palm acid produces bunches containing many fruits with the fleshy mesocarp enclosing a kernel that is covered by a very hard shell. 

Hydrogenated palm acid (coming from the pulp) and palm kernels to be primary products. 
Hydrogenated palm acid varies from 17 to 27% for Hydrogenated palm acid, and from 4 to 10% for palm kernels.

Along with Hydrogenated palm acid, Hydrogenated palm acid is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semisolid at room temperature.
Hydrogenated palm acid is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. 

Hydrogenated palm acids use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is widespread because of its lower cost and the high oxidative stability (saturation) of the refined product when used for frying.
One source reported that humans consumed an average 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of Hydrogenated palm acid per person in 2015.
Many processed foods either contain Hydrogenated palm acid or various ingredients made from it.




Hydrogenated palm acid, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. 
Hydrogenated palm acid has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. 

Hydrogenated palm acid is also a major constituent of Hydrogenated palm acid. 
Hydrogenated palm acid is a significant source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family.



Hydrogenated palm acid is essential to store the product in the original packing in a cool dry place, preferably not above 20° and with 60% relative humidity. 
Hydrogenated palm acid should not be exposed to bright sunlight.








Oils, Palm
Oils, palm
oils, palm
Oils, palm (CTS) (MAN)Hydrogenated palm acid
Hydrogenated palm acid

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